An anatomy of technological innovation in infrastructure and defence systems in Sweden after the Cold War
Abstract: The dual interaction of science and technology with defence, security and infrastructures for service provision as energy is a major theme in modern times. The era after the Second World War and in the course of the Cold War was accompanied and spurred by an amazing number of great technological advances and changes. The study investigates and discusses dimensions of the interaction between technology changes and innovation and defence, security and infrastructure systems in a small country as Sweden after the Cold War. The main result of the study is a proposal for an anatomy of technology innovation which can be seen as a predecessor to a system (or enterprise) architecture for technology innovation in defence, security and infrastructure systems. The approach is developed from previous international research and theories of innovation systems. Infrastructure and defence systems are investigated on three levels, technologies, system integration and services provided. Establishing an anatomy is supported by case studies which apply a stake holder perspective on development and innovation in systems. Prominent elements of the proposed anatomy for technology innovation are framework conditions or context, economic organizational factors such as people, knowledge, business models and finance, and last but not least culture for development and innovation, and the customer and user in the processes. Contexts and environmental conditions in recent times are characterised by more complicated threats and disturbances which potentially imply larger disruptions. The study explores how contexts and emerging conditions translate into plausible scenarios and their effect on the anatomy and the various stages of the innovation processes. The vital role in the anatomical framework played by culture for innovation is illuminated in the case studies. Other basic elements of the anatomy are the people, inventors and developers as the knowledge underpinning. Risk taking and sharing and the rights and responsibilities of the stake holders play substantial roles in the anatomy as some main economic organizational factors and elements of innovation.
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