Topics in Content Based Image Retrieval Fonts and Color Emotions
Abstract: Two novel contributions to Content Based Image Retrieval are presented and discussed. The first is a search engine for font recognition. The intended usage is the search in very large font databases. The input to the search engine is an image of a text line, and the output is the name of the font used when printing the text. After pre-processing and segmentation of the input image, a local approach is used, where features are calculated for individual characters. The method is based on eigenimages calculated from edge filtered character images, which enables compact feature vectors that can be computed rapidly. A system for visualizing the entire font database is also proposed. Applying geometry preserving linear- and non-linear manifold learning methods, the structure of the high-dimensional feature space is mapped to a two-dimensional representation, which can be reorganized into a grid-based display. The performance of the search engine and the visualization tool is illustrated with a large database containing more than 2700 fonts.The second contribution is the inclusion of color-based emotion-related properties in image retrieval. The color emotion metric used is derived from psychophysical experiments and uses three scales: activity, weight and heat. It was originally designed for single-color combinations and later extended to include pairs of colors. A modified approach for statistical analysis of color emotions in images, involving transformations of ordinary RGB-histograms, is used for image classification and retrieval. The methods are very fast in feature extraction, and descriptor vectors are very short. This is essential in our application where the intended use is the search in huge image databases containing millions or billions of images. The proposed method is evaluated in psychophysical experiments, using both category scaling and interval scaling. The results show that people in general perceive color emotions for multi-colored images in similar ways, and that observer judgments correlate with derived values.Both the font search engine and the emotion based retrieval system are implemented in publicly available search engines. User statistics gathered during a period of 20 respectively 14 months are presented and discussed.
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