Submicron Calcium Phosphate Spheres for Biomedical Applications Synthesis and Use
Abstract: Calcium phosphate spheres as biomaterials have been attracting attention in recent years. Calcium phosphate occurs naturally in bone, and a hollow structure could be advantageous for drug loading and release. The combination of a calcium phosphate chemistry and a spherical-hollow structure could be an optimal strategy for specific biomaterial applications, e.g., certain dental and drug-delivery applications.The focus of this thesis is on the synthesis, formation mechanism and applications of hollow, spherical calcium phosphate particles. First, the thesis describes two methods for the synthesis of calcium phosphate (CaP) spherical particles. The first method involves synthesis of hollow calcium phosphate spherical particles via a supersaturated buffer solution based on a previous study. It was utilised to prepare spheres for applications in drug delivery and dentistry. The second method was developed to explain the mechanism of formation of hollow calcium phosphate spheres. It aimed at revealing the particular function of magnesium in the formation of spherical particles. With the use of this modified method, it could be concluded that the only ions active in the formation of CaP spherical particles are calcium ions, phosphate ions and magnesium ions. Compared with the thermodynamics of micellisation, a new model, called three ions virtual micelle effect, was developed to explain the mechanism of the Mg function. Following this mechanism, a series of spherical particles of other compositions were explored. These spherical particles included strontium phosphate, barium phosphate, calcium fluoride, strontium fluoride and barium fluoride.In this thesis, CaP spheres were studied for the controlled delivery of active ingredients and as active agent for tooth remineralisation. The first investigated application was to control the release of vancomycin from Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cement via strontium-doped CaP spheres (SCPS). The results showed that incorporation of CaP spheres into PMMA could enhance antibiotic release while maintaining the mechanical strength. The second application was to control hydrogen peroxide (HP) release from two bleaching gel, in which CP-loaded CaP spheres were the active ingredient. One gel with low HP concentration was developed as an at-home bleaching gel, and one with high HP concentration was developed as an in-office bleaching gel. The results showed that CaP spheres would give a controlled release of peroxide and thus have a potential to increase the efficacy of the bleaching. The third application was to investigate the potential for an anti-sensitivity effect of the spheres, as active agents in toothpaste. We studied the tooth tubules occlusion and the remineralisation effect of CaP spheres. After 7 days of application, the open dentin tubules and surface were fully covered by a newly formed apatite layer, demonstrating the remineralisation potential of the spheres.
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