Attributes Modulating Affective Profiles in Psychiatric Patients
Abstract: Psychiatrically disabled individuals (study I and II) as well as those with an additional deafness or are hard-of -hearing (study III and IV) often have the burden of a hidden affective disability. Positive (PA) and negative affects (NA) have emerged as significant independent dimensions in studies of affective structure. From these two systems four affective profiles (AP) are constructed, namely: Self-fulfilling (SF), high affective, low affective, and self-destructive (SD). The aim of Study I was to identify factors predicting PA and NA respectively. Results indicated that the patient group had strong associations between AP, energy, optimism, self-reported health and stress. PA was predicted from optimism, whereas stress was counter-predictive. NA was predicted from stress, whereas optimism, energy and pulse rate were counter-predictive. Individuals expressing SF displayed the healthiest profiles compared with those expressing SD. Study II aimed at investigating to what extent affective state and mood are predictive of stress experience, and to observe gender effects. Results disclosed that psychiatric disorders had a detrimental effect on stress, energy and optimism. Stress was predicted by NA for both genders, but counter -predicted by PA among men only. Study III aimed to clarify the level of communication problems, positive mood, and to identify predisposing and protecting factors in psychiatric health. Results revealed striking communication problems with a high rate of non-fluent sign communication (86%) within the patients’ families, and poor knowledge of the Swedish language by the patients. Self-esteem (S-E) was found to predict positive mood for patients as well as controls. Positive S-E was identified as a protective factor. Patients and the healthy controls were significantly different in stress, analgesics, and energy. Stress was positively related to sleep disturbances and analgesics. Study IV examined the perceived differences between attributes associated with positive mood, and attributes showing a negative association. Results showed that the patient group expressed less optimism, greater external locus of control, identified regulation, external regulation, amotivation, distractiveness, and motor impulsiveness, and lower levels of positive mood than the controls. Furthermore, a positive mood was predicted by optimism and motor impulsiveness, whereas amotivation and distractiveness were counterpredictive. In conclusion, the patients differed markedly from the norm group with regard to all health variables. Data indicate that NA is the most important item predicting stress and that it appears more detrimental for health than stress. Analgesics may be a predisposing factor for the Affective Deaf Syndrome, ADS. These patterns suggest that this group of patients attempt to emerge from a condition of disempowerment, but require suitable interventional therapies to succeed. Further research should focus on intervention strategies that emphasize the acquisition of personal empowerment as well as providing a high degree of benefit.
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