Search for dissertations about: "Substitution effects"

Showing result 1 - 5 of 189 swedish dissertations containing the words Substitution effects.

  1. 1. Green consumption energy use and carbon dioxide emission

    Author : Eva Alfredsson; Einar Holm; Neil Swan; Kerstin Westin; Umeå universitet; []
    Keywords : SOCIAL SCIENCES; SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP; SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP; SOCIAL SCIENCES; Social and economic geography; Energy consumption; Carbon dioxide emission; Energy intensity; Carbon intensity; Life cycle assessment; Consumption patterns; Lifestyles; Systems analysis; Microsimulation modelling; Demography; Sustainability; Rebound effects; Substitution effects; Kulturgeografi; Human geography; Kulturgeografi; Social and Economic Geography; kulturgeografi;

    Abstract : The aim of this thesis is to explore the quantitative potential to reduce energy requirements and CO2 emissions through changed patterns of consumption, given unchanged levels of consumption expenditure. The thesis question is analysed using a systems analysis approach which in this case means that life cycle assessment data on energy requirements and CO2 emissions related to household consumption are combined with a financial and behavioural analysis to make sure that the budget constraint is kept and that both the first and second order effects of adopting a green consumption pattern are analysed. READ MORE

  2. 2. Concerted or Stepwise? : β-Elimination, Nucleophilic Substitution, Copper Catalysed Aziridination and Ruthenium Catalysed Transfer Hydrogenation Studied by Kinetic Isotope Effects and Linear Free-Energy Relationships

    Author : Per Ryberg; Heinz F. Koch; Uppsala universitet; []
    Keywords : NATURAL SCIENCES; NATURVETENSKAP; NATURVETENSKAP; NATURAL SCIENCES; Organic chemistry; Kinetic isotope effect; linear free energy relationship; elimination; substitution; aziridination; transfer hydrogenation; Organisk kemi; Organic chemistry; Organisk kemi; organisk kemi; Organic Chemistry;

    Abstract : This thesis describes the use of kinetic isotope effects, linear free energy relationships and stereochamical studies to distinguish between different mechanistic alternatives and to obtain information about transition state structure.In the first part fluorine and deuterium kinetic isotope effects were determined for the base promoted HF elimination from 4-fluoro-4-(4’-nitrophenyl)butane-2-on. READ MORE

  3. 3. Palladium-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Substitution of Alcohols : Mechanistic Studies and Synthetic Applications

    Author : Supaporn Sawadjoon; Joseph Samec; Takao Ikariya; Uppsala universitet; []
    Keywords : NATURAL SCIENCES; NATURVETENSKAP; NATURVETENSKAP; NATURAL SCIENCES; palladium; nucleophilic substitution; mechanism; Organic Chemistry; Organisk kemi;

    Abstract : This thesis deals with the palladium-catalyzed nucleophilic substitution of π-activated alcohols in which the C–O bond of a non-manipulated hydroxyl group is cleaved. The thesis is divided in two chapters describing two different catalytic systems. READ MORE

  4. 4. Isotopes as Mechanism Spies : Nucleophilic Bimolecular Substitution and Monoamine Oxidase B Catalysed Amine Oxidation Probed with Heavy Atom Kinetic Isotope Effects

    Author : Susanna MacMillar; Olle Matsson; Anita Hussénius; Daniel M. Quinn; Uppsala universitet; []
    Keywords : Organic chemistry; nucleophilic bimolecular substitution SN2; kinetic isotope effects; precision conductometry; monoamine oxidase B MAO B; reaction mechanism; carbon 11C 14C kinetic isotope effect; ion pairing triple-ion formation; para-substituted benzyl chlorides; tetrabytylammonium cyanide; Organisk kemi;

    Abstract : This thesis concerns the study of reaction mechanisms by means of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). Studies of the nucleophilic bimolecular substitution (SN2) reaction had the dual purpose of improving our fundamental understanding of molecular reactivity and assessing the ability of kinetic isotope effects to serve as mechanistic tools. READ MORE

  5. 5. Structural and Electrical Transport Properties of Doped Nd-123 Superconductors

    Author : Shaban Reza Ghorbani; KTH; []
    Keywords : high temperature superconductors; critical temperature; resistivity; thermoelectric power; Hall coefficient; X-ray diffraction; Neutron diffraction; NdBa2Cu3O7-delta; hole concentration; substitution;

    Abstract : It is generally believed that one of the key parameterscontrolling the normal state and superconducting properties ofhigh temperature superconductors is the charge carrierconcentrationpin the CuO2planes.By changing the non-isovalent dopingconcentration on the RE site as well as the oxygen content in(RE)Ba2Cu3O7−δ, an excellent tool is obtained tovary the hole concentration over a wide range from theunderdoped up to the overdoped regime. READ MORE