Vitamin D Hydroxylating Enzymes and Analogues in Parathyroid Tumors and Breast Cancer
Abstract: In hyperparathyroidism (HPT) raised serum concentrations of ionized calcium is caused by increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by parathyroid tumors. Active vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is known to suppress PTH secretion and to reduce proliferation of parathyroid tumor cells.The aim of this thesis was to examine expression of vitamin D hydroxylating enzymes, regulating the activation and inactivation of vitamin D and to study effects of vitamin D analogues, in parathyroid tumors and breast cancer.The vitamin D activating enzyme, CYP27B1/25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase (1α-hydroxylase) and the vitamin D inactivating enzyme CYP24A1/25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (24-hydroxylase) were expressed in parathyroid tumors and breast cancer. The parathyroid tumors had raised expression levels of 1α-hydroxylase and reduced levels of 24-hydroxylase in comparison to normal parathyroid glands, indicating ability for endogenous activation of vitamin D. The expression of 1α-hydroxylase may be of therapeutic advantage for local activation of non-1α-hydroxylated vitamin D analogues in tumor cells, thereby reducing unwanted hypercalcemic effects. Three of five selected low calcemic vitamin D analogues had as efficient PTH suppressing effect, in bovine parathyroid cells, as three vitamin D analogues used clinically for treatment of secondary HPT.The non-1α-hydroxylated vitamin D analogue EB1285 showed antiproliferative and PTH suppressive effects as well as transcriptional activity in parathyroid and breast tumor cells, respectively.Ketoconazole, an inhibitor of vitamin D hydroxylating enzymes, suppressed PTH secretion and potentiated the effect of vitamin D analogues. Combined treatment with vitamin D analogues and specific 24-hydroxylase inhibitors may be important for future therapy.
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