Essays on Gender, Development and Political Economy

Abstract: The Long-Run Impact of Protestant Missionary Activity on Female Labour-Force ParticipationResearch has shown that missionary activity, in general, and Protestant missionary activity, in particular, has had a long-lasting positive effect on literacy, education and democratic values. In this chapter, I analyse the differential effect of early 20th century Protestant and Catholic missionary activity in three former British colonies - Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda - on female labour-force participation with a particular focus on formal-sector employment. Using survey data, I find that Protestant missionary activity, compared to Catholic missionary activity, has a persistent positive relationship with education, especially for women and girls, is associated with greater female empowerment within the household and increases in the likelihood that women are employed full time, in non-agricultural skilled work and that they earn cash wages. Furthermore, with a novel dataset on public sector employees in Tanzania, I find that greater Protestant missionary activity, as measured by the number of Protestant mission stations in a district, is positively related to higher shares of female employees, especially civil servants, and an increase in the likelihood that a Local Government Authority is led by a woman.The Impact of Reservation on Female Representation - Evidence from Uttar PradeshIndia has a policy of reserving certain political positions for women and marginalised caste-groups which has increased their representation in local governments. In this chapter, I use the rotating design of India's reservation policy to estimate what happens in the election following reservation. I explicitly look at reservation for women with and without caste restrictions separately. I find that in the election following reservation for women there is an increase in the share of women mayors with particularly strong effects for lower-caste women where the share of lower-caste women mayors increases by 80%. I find limited evidence that this is driven by the re-election of incumbents but, instead, that it is driven by increases in the quality and quantity of candidates. In the election following reservation for women, I estimate an increase in the number of candidates and their quality, as measured by literacy, for both male and female candidates. Voting from Abroad: Assessing the Impact of Local Turnout on Expatriates' Voting BehaviourOver 150 countries allow expatriate citizens to vote in their country of origin. Yet, little is known about their voting behaviour and how this is affected by host countries. Using unique micro-data on Chilean expatriates living in Europe, we study how the host country's turnout affects expatriates' electoral participation in the 2017 Chilean Presidential election. We focus on the 2014 European Parliament election turnout in the district of the Chilean's geocoded residence and exploit local transitory shocks to the cost of voting given by the rainfall on the day of the election. We find that a 1 percentage point increase in the host country's turnout decreases the electoral participation of Chilean expatriates by nearly 1 percentage point. This suggests a trade-off between political engagement in host country and home country politics. We find a stronger impact for young Chileans and those living in small communities, and in localities more welcoming to migrants.

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