Descriptive Set Theory and Applications

Abstract: The systematic study of Polish spaces within the scope of Descriptive Set Theory furnishes the working mathematician with powerful techniques and illuminating insights. In this thesis, we start with a concise recapitulation of some classical aspects of Descriptive Set Theory which is followed by a succint review of topological groups, measures and some of their associated algebras. The main application of these techniques contained in this thesis is the study of two families of closed subsets of a locally compact Polish group G, namely U(G) - closed sets of uniqueness - and U0(G) - closed sets of extended uniqueness. We locate the descriptive set theoretic complexity of these families, proving in particular that U(G) is \Pi_1^1-complete whenever G/\overline{[G,G]} is non-discrete, thereby extending the existing literature regarding the abelian case. En route, we establish some preservation results concerning sets of (extended) uniqueness and their operator theoretic counterparts. These results constitute a pivotal part in the arguments used and entail alternative proofs regarding the computation of the complexity of U(G) and U0(G) in some classes of the abelian case. We study U(G) as a calibrated \Pi_1^1 \sigma-ideal of F(G) - for G amenable - and prove some criteria concerning necessary conditions for the inexistence of a Borel basis for U(G). These criteria allow us to retrieve information about G after examination of its subgroups or quotients. Furthermore, a sufficient condition for the inexistence of a Borel basis for U(G) is proven for the case when G is a product of compact (abelian or not) Polish groups satisfying certain conditions.  Finally, we study objects associated with the point spectrum of linear bounded operators T\in L(X) acting on a separable Banach space X. We provide a characterization of reflexivity for Banach spaces with an unconditional basis : indeed such space X is reflexive if and only if for all closed subspaces Y\subset X;Z\subset X^{\ast} and T\in 2 L(Y); S\in 2 L(Z) it holds that the point spectra \sigma_p(T); \sigma_p(S) are Borel. We study the complexity of sets prescribed by eigenvalues and prove a stability criterion for Jamison sequences.

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