Electromagnetic Modelling of Power Transformers for Study and Mitigation of Effects of GICs

University dissertation from Stockholm : KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Abstract: Geomagnetic disturbances that result from solar activities can affect technological systems such as power networks. They may cause DC currents in power networks and saturation of the core in power transformers that leads to destruction in the transformer performance. This phenomena result in unwanted influences on power transformers and the power system. Very asymmetric magnetization current, increasing losses and creation of hot spots in the core, in the windings, and the metallic structural parts are adverse effects that occur in transformers. Also, increasing demand of reactive power and malfunction of protective relays menaces the power network stability. Damages in large power transformers and blackouts in networks have occurred due to this phenomenon.Hence, studies regarding this subject have taken the attention of researchers during the last decades. However, a gap of a comprehensive analysis still remains. Thus, the main aim of this project is to reach to a deep understanding of the phenomena and to come up with a solution for a decrease of the undesired effects of GIC.Achieving this goal requires an improvement of the electromagnetic models of transformers which include a hysteresis model, numerical techniques, and transient analysis.In this project, a new algorithm for digital measurement of the magnetic materials is developed and implemented. It enhances the abilities of accurate measurements and an improved hysteresis model has been worked out. Also, a novel differential scalar hysteresis model is suggested that easily can be implemented in numerical methods. Two and three dimensional finite element models of various core types of power transformers are created to study the effect of DC magnetization on transformers. In order to enhance the numerical tools for analysis of low frequency transients related to power transformers and the network, a novel topological based time step transformer model has been outlined. The model can employ a detailed magnetic circuit and consider nonlinearity, hysteresis and eddy current effects of power transformers. Furthermore, the proposed model can be used in the design process of transformers and even extend other application such as analysis of electrical machines.The numerical and experimental studies in this project lead to understanding the mechanism that a geomantic disturbance affects power transformers and networks. The revealed results conclude with proposals for mitigation strategies against these phenomena.

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