Slag, Steel, Ladle and Non-metallic Inclusions Equilibria in an ASEA-SKF Ladle Furnace
Abstract: This study explores the possibility of prediction and modification of some of the physicochemical properties of non-metallic inclusions by considering top slag-steel-ladle equilibria in an ASEA-SKF ladle furnace. To test the reliability of an available computational thermodynamic computer program, the first sub project was done. It was concluded that LiMeS, an interface for Thermo-Calc, is a useful tool for slag-steel equilibrium calculations. The second sub project was set out to find some model/s that could calculate the most accurate oxygen activity of molten steel compared to the measured one. This study concluded that both Wagner’s and Turkdogan's equations are useful. It was further seen that increasing the Al contents in the molten steel, increasing the CaO/Al2O3 ratio in the top slag, and reducing the temperature, resulted in reduction of the oxygen activity of the molten steel. In the third sub project a comparison was made between measured CaO and Al2O3 (normalised to CaO-Al2O3) in top slag, calcium aluminate inclusions, and the results of theoretical calculations. The average contents of CaO and Al2O3 in all inclusions were close to the composition of the phase Ca12Al14O33 and the contents of CaO and Al2O3 in the slags were close to the composition of the phase Ca3Al2O6 in the binary phase diagram of CaO-Al2O3. The forth sub project set out to study the effect of vacuum degassing time on non-metallic inclusions. It was concluded that during the vacuum degassing process the share of calcium aluminates compared to spinels, Ca content of the oxides, and the average equivalent circle diameters of the oxides were increasing, and oxides tended to form spherical shapes. Finally, based on the preceding four sub projects, the fifth sub project aimed to optimize the steel treatment in an ASEA-SKF ladle furnace. The final results showed that by adding 200 kg fluorite to the top slag of 1200 kg, it was possible to achieve a sulphur content of less than 10 ppm in the steel and a sulphur ratio between slag and steel of 1570, and at the same time reduce the oxygen activity of the molten steel and the degassing time.
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