Discovery-Oriented Screening of Dynamic Systems: Combinatorial and Synthetic Applications

University dissertation from Stockholm : KTH

Abstract: This thesis is divided into six parts, all centered around the development of dynamic (i.e., reversibly interacting) systems of molecules and their applications in dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) and organic synthesis.Part one offers a general introduction, as well as a more detailed description of DCC, being the central concept of this thesis. Part two explores the potential of the nitroaldol reaction as a tool for constructing dynamic systems, employing benzaldehyde derivatives and nitroalkanes. This reaction is then applied in part three where a dynamic nitroaldol system is resolved by lipase-catalyzed transacylation, selecting two out of 16 components.In part four, reaction and crystallization driven DCC protocols are developed and demonstrated. The discovery of unexpected crystalline properties of certain pyridine β-nitroalcohols is used to resolve a dynamic system and further expanded into asynthetic procedure. Furthermore, a previously unexplored tandem nitroaldol-iminolactone rearrangement reaction between 2-cyanobenzaldehyde and primarynitroalkanes is used for the resolution of dynamic systems. It is also coupled with diastereoselective crystallization to demonstrate the possibility to combine several selection processes. The mechanism of this reaction is investigated and a synthetic protocol is developed for asymmetric synthesis of 3-substituted isoindolinones.Part five continues the exploration of tandem reactions by combining dynamic hemithioacetal or cyanohydrin formation with intramolecular cyclization to synthesize a wide range of 3-functionalized phthalides.Finally, part six deals with the construction of a laboratory experiment to facilitate the introduction of DCC in undergraduate chemistry education. The experiment is based on previous work in our group and features an acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed resolution of a dynamic transthioacylation system.

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