On performance limitations of large-scale networks with distributed feedback control
Abstract: We address the question of performance of large-scale networks with distributed feedback control. We consider networked dynamical systems with single and double integrator dynamics, subject to distributed disturbances. We focus on two types of problems. First, we consider problems modeled over regular lattice structures. Here, we treat consensus and vehicular formation problems and evaluate performance in terms of measures of “global order”, which capture the notion of network coherence. Second, we consider electric power networks, which we treat as dynamical systems modeled over general graphs. Here, we evaluate performance in terms of the resistive power losses that are incurred in maintaining network synchrony. These losses are associated with transient power flows that are a consequence of “local disorder” caused by lack of synchrony. In both cases, we characterize fundamental limitations to performance as networks become large. Previous studies have shown that such limitations hold for coherence in networks with regular lattice structures. These imply that connections in 3 spatial dimensions are necessary to achieve full coherence, when the controller uses static feedback from relative measurements in a local neighborhood. We show that these limitations remain valid also with dynamic feedback, where each controller has an internal memory state. However, if the controller can access certain absolute state information, dynamic feedback can improve performance compared to static feedback, allowing also 1-dimensional formations to be fully coherent. For electric power networks, we show that the transient power losses grow unboundedly with network size. However, in contrast to previous results, performance does not improve with increased network connectivity. We also show that a certain type of distributed dynamic feedback controller can improve performance by reducing losses, but that their scaling with network size remains an important limitation.
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