Surface Sampling and Automated Liquid Membrane Extraction of Fungicides
Abstract: A number of approaches for fungicide determination are presented. A surface sampling technique is utilised for the determination of fungicide foliar residues on greenhouse surfaces, mainly leaves. The procedure is based on solvation of the fungicides on the leaf surface with ethanol and HPLC analysis. It was applied to studies of the environment in greenhouses including investigations of decline rates of the fungicides. Occupational hazards, such as respiratory exposure and dermal uptake were investigated. Another environmental aspect on application of fungicides is the discharge of the compounds and their degradation products to water recipients. The actual concentrations are often quite low (usually below 1 µg/L) necessitating sensitive and selective analytical procedures involving enrichment. This can be met by membrane-based extraction techniques also providing possibilities for automation and closed systems. The supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction and microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (MMLLE), are used for sample preparation of natural water samples. Automated systems on-line to reverse- and to normal phase HPLC have been realised. A combination of these techniques offers extraction conditions, which makes it possible to determine a wide variety of compounds.
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