Characterization of Centrally Expressed Solute Carriers Histological and Functional Studies with Transgenic Mice

University dissertation from Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Abstract: The Solute Carrier (SLC) superfamily is the largest group of membrane-bound transporters, currently with 456 transporters in 52 families. Much remains unknown about the tissue distribution and function of many of these transporters. The aim of this thesis was to characterize select SLCs with emphasis on tissue distribution, cellular localization, and function.       In paper I, we studied the leucine transporter B0AT2 (Slc6a15). Localization of B0AT2 and Slc6a15 in mouse brain was determined using in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), localizing it to neurons, epithelial cells, and astrocytes. Furthermore, we observed a lower reduction of food intake in Slc6a15 knockout mice (KO) upon intraperitoneal injections with leucine, suggesting B0AT2 is involved in mediating the anorexigenic effects of leucine.     In paper II, we studied the postnatal, forebrain-specific deletion of Slcz1, belonging to the SLC18 family, in conditional KO mice (cKO). We observed a decreased response to diazepam and a higher neuronal activity in cortex and hippocampus of cKO mice, as well as an impairment in short-term recognition memory. Intracellular expression was found in neurons but not astrocytes with IHC, indicating SLCZ1 is implicated in neuronal regulation of locomotion and memory.    In paper III, we performed the first detailed histological analysis of PAT4, a transporter belonging to the SLC36 family, involved in the activation of mTOR complex 1 on lysosomes. We found abundant Slc36a4 mRNA and PAT4 expression in mouse brain, using ISH and IHC. We used IHC to localize PAT4 to both inhibitory and excitatory neurons and epithelial cells. We also found both intracellular- and plasmalemmal expression and partial colocalization of PAT4 with lysosomal markers.    Lastly, in paper IV, we provided the first tissue mapping of orphan transporter MCT14 (SLC16A14). Using qPCR, we detected moderate to high Slc16a14 mRNA in the central nervous system and kidney. We found widespread Slc16a14 and MCT14 in mouse brain using ISH and IHC. We also found MCT14 to have intracellular and plasmalemmal expression in mainly excitatory but also inhibitory neurons, as well as epithelial cells. We found MCT14 to be most closely related to MCT8, MCT2 and MCT9, suggesting a similar role for this transporter.