Heparin coating and cardiotomy suction in cardiopulmonary bypass

Abstract: The present thesis addresses various means of reducing inflammatory responses associated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and retransfusion of pericardial suction blood (PSB) during cardiac surgery.Four (I-IV) prospective randomised controlled clinical trials comprising 475 patients were performed in the following areas: effects of heparin coating on measures of clinical outcome and memory function (I, II), inflammatory reactions in PSB and its systemic effects after retransfusion using cardiotomy suction or cell salvage (III) and effects of retransfusion of PSB on memory function and release patterns of protein S100B (IV).The use of heparin coated CPB-circuits was associated with a decrease of postoperative blood loss (I, II), transfusion requirements (II), shorter stay in hospital (I) decreased postoperative ventilator time (I), lower incidences of atrial fibrillation (II) and neurological deviations (I), reduction in releases of protein S100B (I, II) and lower postoperative creatinine elevation (I, II).PSB contained high concentrations of cytokines, complements, myeloperoxidase, free plasma haemoglobin and protein S100B (III, IV). Retransfusion using cardiotomy suction increased the systemic concentrations of free plasma haemoglobin and protein S100B, whereas retransfusion using cell salvage caused no detectable systemic effects (III, IV). CPB was associated with a small but significant release of protein S100B, despite elimination of PSB-contained protein S100B using cell salvage (IV).Subtle signs of impaired memory function were identified that were not associated with the use of heparin coated CPB-circuits (I, II) or retransfusion of PSB (IV).Key words: cardiopulmonary bypass, oxygenators, heparin, S100 proteins, blood loss, haemostasis, memory, outcome and process assessment.