Electronic and Photonic Quantum Devices

University dissertation from Kista : Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik

Abstract: In this thesis various subjects at the crossroads of quantummechanics and device physics are treated, spanning from afundamental study on quantum measurements to fabricationtechniques of controlling gates for nanoelectroniccomponents.Electron waveguide components, i.e. electronic componentswith a size such that the wave nature of the electron dominatesthe device characteristics, are treated both experimentally andtheoretically. On the experimental side, evidence of partialballistic transport at room-temperature has been found anddevices controlled by in-plane Pt/GaAs gates have beenfabricated exhibiting an order of magnitude improvedgate-efficiency as compared to an earlier gate-technology. Onthe theoretical side, a novel numerical method forself-consistent simulations of electron waveguide devices hasbeen developed. The method is unique as it incorporates anenergy resolved charge density calculation allowing for e.g.calculations of electron waveguide devices to which a finitebias is applied. The method has then been used in discussionson the influence of space-charge on gate-control of electronwaveguide Y-branch switches.Electron waveguides were also used in a proposal for a novelscheme of carrierinjection in low-dimensional semiconductorlasers, a scheme which altogether by- passes the problem ofslow carrier relaxation in suchstructures. By studying aquantum mechanical two-level system serving as a model forelectroabsorption modulators, the ultimate limits of possiblemodulation rates of such modulators have been assessed andfound to largely be determined by the adiabatic response of thesystem. The possibility of using a microwave field to controlRabi oscillations in two-level systems such that a large numberof states can be engineered has also been explored.A more fundamental study on quantum mechanical measurementshas been done, in which the transition from a classical to aquantum "interaction free" measurement was studied, making aconnection with quantum non-demolition measurements.