Studies on anti-leukemic terpenoids from medicinal mushrooms and marine sponges with ChemGPS-NP-based targets investigation of lead compounds
Abstract: This thesis investigates the anti-leukemic activity of terpenoids isolated from medicinal mushrooms and marine sponges, as well as their possible targets and mechanisms of action.In the first section, we focused on studying the triterpenoidal components of three triterpenoid-enriched medicinal mushrooms Antrodia cinnamomea, Ganoderma lucidum, and Poria cocos, which have been used in folk medicine for centuries and also developed into several contemporary marketed products. We isolated the major and characteristic triterpenoids from these mushrooms, together with six new lanostanoids (II-1–II-6). The anti-leukemic activity of the isolates was evaluated in vitro using MTT proliferative assay and seven of them exhibited potential anti-leukemic effect. The active lead compounds were further subjected to computational analyses utilizing the ChemGPS-NP tool. We established a database for the anti-leukemic relevant chemical space of triterpenoids isolated from these three medicinal mushrooms, which could be used as a reference database for further research on anti-leukemic triterpenoids. Our results indicated that the anti-leukemic effect of the active lead compounds was mediated not only through topoisomerases inhibition but also through inhibiting DNA polymerases.The second and third sections focused on isolation of anti-leukemic sesterterpenoids from sponges. The investigation of Carteriospongia sp. led to the isolation of two new scalarane-type sesterterpenoids (III-1 and III-2) and one known tetraprenyltoluquinol-related metabolite (III-3). All isolates exhibit an apoptotic mechanism of action against Molt 4 cells, found to be mediated through the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and inhibition of topoisomerase IIα expression. Detailed investigation of the apoptotic mechanism of action using molecular docking analysis revealed that compound III-1 might target Hsp90 protein. The apoptotic-inducing effect of III-3 was supported by in vivo experiment by suppressing the volume of xenograft tumor growth (47.58%) compared with the control.In the final section of this thesis we studied manoalide and its derivatives, sesterterpenoids isolated from the sponge Luffariella sp.. Manoalide has been studied as a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the last thirty years with more than 200 publications and 40 patents. However, the configurations at positions 24 and 25 were never revealed. In the current study, ten manoalide-type sesterterpenoids (IV-1–IV-10) were isolated from Luffariella sp. and their stereoisomers at positions 24 and 25 were identified and separated for the first time. The configuration at positions 24 and 25 showed to have a significant effect on the anti-leukemic activity of manoalide derivatives, with the 24R,25S-isomer exhibiting the most potent anti-leukemic activity. The apoptotic mechanism of action of compound IV-7 against Molt 4 cells was investigated, and the compound was found to trigger MMP disruption and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Compound IV-7 also inhibited activity against both human topoisomerases, I and II. The in vivo experiment further supported the anti-leukemic effect of IV-7 with a 66.11% tumor volume suppression compared to the control.
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