A physical modeling study of top blowing with focus on the penetration region
Abstract: This thesis work aimed at increasing the knowledge regarding phenomena occurring when gas is injected using a top-blown lance on to a bath. All results are based on physical modeling studies carried out both using low and high gas flow rates and nozzle diameters ranging from 0.8 mm to 3.0 mm. At the low gas flow rates, the penetration depth in the bath was studied. The experiments focused on studying the effect of nozzle diameter, lance height and gas flow rate on the penetration depth. It was found that the penetration depth increases with decreasing nozzle diameter, decreasing lance height and with increasing gas flow rate. The results were also compared with previous work. More specifically, it was studied how the previous published empirical relationships fitted the current experimental data. It was found that the relationships of Banks , Davenport , Chatterjee  and Qian  agreed well with the experimental data of this investigation for nozzle diameters of 2.0 mm and 3.0 mm. However, for smaller nozzle diameters there were considerable deviations. Therefore, a new correlation heuristically derived from energy conservation consideration was suggested and showed better agreement for small nozzle diameters.The experiments carried out at higher gas flow rates focused on the study of swirl motion. The effects of nozzle diameter, lance height, gas flow rate and aspect ratio on the swirl motion were investigated. The amplitude and period of the swirl as well as the starting time and the damping time of the swirl were determined. The amplitude was found to increase with an increased nozzle diameter and gas flow rate, while the period had a constant value of about 0.5 s for all nozzle diameters, gas flow rates and lance heights. The starting time for the swirl motion was found to decrease with an increased gas flow, while the damping time was found to be independent of gas flow rate, nozzle diameter, lance height and ratio of depth to diameter.
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