Long time follow up of implant therapy and treatment of peri-implantitis

Abstract: Dental implants have become an often used alternative to replace missing teeth, resulting in an increasing percentage of the adult population with implant supported prosthesis. Although favourable longterm results of implant therapy have been reported, infections occur. Until recently few reports included data on peri-implant infections,possibly underestimating this complication of implant treatment. It is possible that some infections around implants develop slowly and that with time peri-implantitis will be a common complication to implant therapy as an increasing number of patients have had their implants for a long time (>10 years). Data on treatment of periimplant lesions are scarce leaving the clinician with limited guidance regarding choice of treatment. The aim of this thesis was to study the frequency of implant loss and presence of peri-implant lesions in a group of patients supplied with Brånemark implants 9-14 years ago, and to relate these events to patient and site specific characteristics. Moreover three surgical treatment modalities for peri-implantitis were evaluated. The thesis is based on six studies; Studies I-III included 218 patients and 1057 implants followed for 9-14 years evaluating prevalence of, and factors related to implant loss (Paper I) and prevalence of peri-implant infections and related factors (Paper II-III). Study IV is a review describing different treatment modalities of peri-implant infections. Study V is a prospective cohort study involving 36 patients and 65 implants, evaluating the use of a bone substitute with or without the use of a resorbable membrane. Study VI is a case series with 12 patients and 16 implants, evaluating a bone substitute in combination with a resorbable membrane and submerged healing. This thesis demonstrated that: After 9-14 years the survival rates of dental implants are high (95.7%). Implant loss seems to cluster within patients and are related to periodontitis evidenced as bone loss on radiographs at remaining teeth before implant placement. (Paper I) Peri-implantitis is a common clinical entity after 9-14 years. (Paper II) Using the implant as the statistical unit the level of keratinized mucosa and pus were explanatory for a bone level at ≥3 threads (1.8 mm). When the patient was used as a statistical unit a history of periodontitis and smoking were explanatory for periimplantitis. (Paper III) Animal research has demonstrated that re-osseointegration can occur. The majority of human studies were found to be case reports. Using submerged healing and bone transplants, bone fill can occur in peri-implant defects. (Paper IV) Surgical treatment of peri-implantitis using a bone substitute with or without a resorbable membrane resulted in similar pocket depth reduction, attachment gain and defect fill. (Paper V) Bone substitute in combination with a resorbable membrane and a submerged healing resulted in defect fill ≥2 threads (1.2 mm) in 81% of the implants. (Paper VI) In conclusion: 9-14 years after implant installation peri-implant lesions are a common clinical entity. Smokers and patients with a history of periodontal disease are at higher risk to develop periimplantitis. Clinical improvements and defect fill can be obtained with various surgical techniques using a bone substitute.

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