3D property rights an analysis of key factors based on international experience
Abstract: The objectives of this thesis are to establish the fundamental principles in the field of 3D property rights by studying such systems in different countries with a particular focus on management questions, to systemize the acquired knowledge and demonstrate different ways of dealing with key factors essential to a well-functioning 3D property rights system.A theoretical background to the 3D property concept is given by presenting proposals as to a definition of 3D property and a classification of the primary forms of 3D property rights examined into specific types and categories, as well as an overview of international 3D property use. A general description of the characteristics of 3D property, with a focus on the condominium form, is also presented.A presentation of three different 3D property rights models is given as exemplified by the countries investigated, including the independent 3D property model in Sweden, the condominium form model in Germany, and a combination of the independent 3D property form and the condominium form as evidenced by the legal systems of two Australian states, New South Wales and Victoria.It has been possible to discern from this study a number of key factors related to 3D property rights that seem to be common for most forms and systems. These include the delimitation of property units, the content of the definition of common property, the creation of easements, the forms of cooperation between property units, management and regulation issues, as well as the settlement of disputes and insurance solutions.The problems experienced within the 3D property systems studied to a large extent have concerned issues within these mentioned key areas, where the management aspect seems particularly difficult. Changes in society and the creation of new development forms to a large extent have also contributed to the need for statutory amendments. More or less substantial amendments have been required in both the Australian and German statutes studied, with shortcomings still remaining after many years of use. However, these systems in general seem to be working well, and the condominium form in particular seems to be a well-functioning concept. Based on these systems, it has been possible to discern a tendency that the more detailed and complex the legislation, the greater the need for gradual amendments. In conclusion, it would be of benefit for countries planning on introducing a system for 3D property rights to utilize the experiences of other countries, while not forgetting to consider differences in legal systems, society, etc.
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