Device design and process integration for SiGeC and Si/SOI bipolar transistors
Abstract: SiGe is a significant enabling technology for therealization of integrated circuits used in high performanceoptical networks and radio frequency applications. In order tocontinue to fulfill the demands for these applications, newmaterials and device structures are needed. This thesis focuseson new materials and their integration into heterojunctionbipolar transistor (HBT) structures as well as using devicesimulations to optimize and better understand the deviceoperation. Specifically, a SiGeC HBT platform was designed,fabricated, and electrically characterized. The platformfeatures a non-selectively grown epitaxial SiGeC base,in situdoped polysilicon emitter, nickel silicide,LOCOS isolation, and a minimum emitter width of 0.4 ?m.Alternately, a selective epitaxy growth in an oxide window wasused to form the collector and isolation regions. Thetransistors exhibited cutoff frequency (fT) and maximum frequency of oscillation (fMAX) of 40-80 GHz and 15-45 GHz, respectively.Lateral design rules allowed the investigation of behavior suchas transient enhanced diffusion, leakage current, and theinfluence of parasitics such as base resistance and CBC. The formation of nickel silicide on polysiliconSiGe and SiGeC films was also investigated. The formation ofthe low resistivity monosilicide phase was shown to occur athigher temperatures on SiGeC than on SiGe. The stability of themonosilicide was also shown to improve for SiGeC. Nickelsilicide was then integrated into a SiGeC HBT featuring aselectively grown collector. A novel, fully silicided extrinsicbase contact was demonstrated along with the simultaneousformation of NiSi on thein situdoped polysilicon emitter.High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used toinvestigate the growth and stability of SiGeC base layers forHBT integration. HRXRD proved to be an effective, fast,non-destructive tool for monitoring carbon out-diffusion due tothe dopant activation anneal for different temperatures as wellas for inline process monitoring of epitaxial growth of SiGeClayers. The stability of the SiGe layer with 0.2-0.4 at% carbonwhen subjected to dopant activation anneals ranging from1020-1100°C was analyzed by reciprocal lattice mapping.It was found that as the substitutional carbon increases theformation of boron clusters due to diffusion is suppressed, buta higher density of carbon clusters is formed.Device simulations were performed to optimize the DC and HFperformance of an advanced SiGeC HBT structure with low baseresistance and small dimension emitter widths. The selectivelyimplanted collector (SIC) was studied using a design ofexperiments (DOE) method. For small dimensions the lateralimplantation straggle has a significant influence on the SICprofile (width). A significant influence of the SIC width onthe DC gain was observed. The optimized structure showedbalanced fT/fMAXvalues of 200+ GHz. Finally, SOI BJT transistorswith deep trench isolation were fabricated in a 0.25?mBiCMOS process and self-heating effects were characterized andcompared to transistors on bulk silicon featuring deep trenchand shallow trench isolation. Device simulations based on SEMcross-sections and SIMS data were performed and the resultscompared to the fabricated transistors.Key words:Silicon-Germanium(SiGe), SiGeC,heterojunction bipolar transistor(HBT), nickel silicide,selectively implanted collector(SIC), device simulation, SiGeClayer stability, high resolution x-ray diffraction(HRXRD),silicon-on-insulator(SOI), self-heating.
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