Fuzzy Set Theory Applied to Make Medical Prognoses for Cancer Patients
Abstract: As we all know the classical set theory has a deep-rooted influence in the traditional mathematics. According to the two-valued logic, an element can belong to a set or cannot. In the former case, the element’s membership degree will be assigned to one, whereas in the latter case it takes the zero value. With other words, a feeling of imprecision or fuzziness in the two-valued logic does not exist. With the rapid development of science and technology, more and more scientists have gradually come to realize the vital importance of the multi-valued logic. Thus, in 1965, Professor Lotfi A. Zadeh from Berkeley University put forward the concept of a fuzzy set. In less than 60 years, people became more and more familiar with fuzzy set theory. The theory of fuzzy sets has been turned to be a favor applied to many fields. The study aims to apply some classical and extensional methods of fuzzy set theory in life expectancy and treatment prognoses for cancer patients. The research is based on real-life problems encountered in clinical works by physicians. From the introductory items of the fuzzy set theory to the medical applications, a collection of detailed analysis of fuzzy set theory and its extensions are presented in the thesis. Concretely speaking, the Mamdani fuzzy control systems and the Sugeno controller have been applied to predict the survival length of gastric cancer patients. In order to keep the gastric cancer patients, already examined, away from the unnecessary suffering from surgical operation, the fuzzy c-means clustering analysis has been adopted to investigate the possibilities for operation contra to nonoperation. Furthermore, the approach of point set approximation has been adopted to estimate the operation possibilities against to nonoperation for an arbitrary gastric cancer patient. In addition, in the domain of multi-expert decision-making, the probabilistic model, the model of 2-tuple linguistic representations and the hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets (HFLTS) have been utilized to select the most consensual treatment scheme(s) for two separate prostate cancer patients. The obtained results have supplied the physicians with reliable and helpful information. Therefore, the research work can be seen as the mathematical complements to the physicians’ queries.
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