Design and Synthesis of AT2 Receptor Selective Angiotensin II Analogues Encompassing β- and γ-Turn Mimetics
Abstract: Important information on the bioactive conformation of biologically active peptides may be obtained by studies of rigid peptides or well-defined secondary structure mimetics incorporated into pseudopeptides. The structural requirements for the interaction of angiotensin II (Ang II, Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) with its AT1 and AT2 receptors were the subject of this study.The main objectives of this work were to synthesize secondary structure mimetics and incorporate these into Ang II. Ang II has been suggested to adopt a turn conformation around Tyr4 when interacting with its AT1 receptor. Therefore, two γ- and one β-turn mimetic scaffolds based on the benzodiazepine structure were synthesized and decorated with side chains. The scaffolds replaced the turn region around Tyr4. Most of the pseudopeptides obtained after incorporation into Ang II exhibited high AT2/AT1 selectivity and nanomolar affinity to the AT2 receptor. One pseudopeptide encompassing a β-turn mimetic also displayed AT1 receptor affinity.We hypothesized that the position of the guanidino group of the arginine residue and the N-terminal end, in relation to the tyrosine side chain, was critical for AT2 receptor affinity. Conformational evaluation of the pseudopeptides revealed that in all the compounds with AT2 receptor affinity the arginine side chain and the N-terminal end could reach common regions, not accessible to the inactive compound. It is proposed that Ang II has a more extended bioactive conformation when binding to the AT2 receptor than when binding to the AT1 receptor.Furthermore, in a Gly scan of Ang II only replacement of the arginine residue reduced the affinity for the AT2 receptor considerably. Some N-terminal modified Ang II analogues were also synthesized and it was concluded that truncated Ang II analogues interact with the AT2 receptor differently than Ang II.Three of the synthesized pseudopeptides were evaluated in AT2 receptor functional assays and were found to act as agonists.
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