Application of SiGe(C) in high performance MOSFETs and infrared detectors
Abstract: Epitaxially grown SiGe(C) materials have a great importance for many device applications. In these applications, (strained or relaxed) SiGe(C) layers are grown either selectively on the active areas, or on the entire wafer. Epitaxy is a sensitive step in the device processing and choosing an appropriate thermal budget is crucial to avoid the dopant out–diffusion and strain relaxation. Strain is important for bandgap engineering in (SiGe/Si) heterostructures, and to increase the mobility of the carriers. An example for the latter application is implementing SiGe as the biaxially strained channel layer or in recessed source/drain (S/D) of pMOSFETs. For this case, SiGe is grown selectively in recessed S/D regions where the Si channel region experiences uniaxial strain.The main focus of this Ph.D. thesis is on developing the first empirical model for selective epitaxial growth of SiGe using SiH2Cl2, GeH4 and HCl precursors in a reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition (RPCVD) reactor. The model describes the growth kinetics and considers the contribution of each gas precursor in the gas–phase and surface reactions. In this way, the growth rate and Ge content of the SiGe layers grown on the patterned substrates can be calculated. The gas flow and temperature distribution were simulated in the CVD reactor and the results were exerted as input parameters for the diffusion of gas molecules through gas boundaries. Fick?s law and the Langmuir isotherm theory (in non–equilibrium case) have been applied to estimate the real flow of impinging molecules. For a patterned substrate, the interactions between the chips were calculated using an established interaction theory. Overall, a good agreement between this model and the experimental data has been presented. This work provides, for the first time, a guideline for chip manufacturers who are implementing SiGe layers in the devices.The other focus of this thesis is to implement SiGe layers or dots as a thermistor material to detect infrared radiation. The result provides a fundamental understanding of noise sources and thermal response of SiGe/Si multilayer structures. Temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and noise voltage have been measured for different detector prototypes in terms of pixel size and multilayer designs. The performance of such structures was studied and optimized as a function of quantum well and Si barrier thickness (or dot size), number of periods in the SiGe/Si stack, Ge content and contact resistance. Both electrical and thermal responses of such detectors were sensitive to the quality of the epitaxial layers which was evaluated by the interfacial roughness and strain amount. The strain in SiGe material was carefully controlled in the meta–stable region by implementingivcarbon in multi quantum wells (MQWs) of SiGe(C)/Si(C). A state of the art thermistor material with TCR of 4.5 %/K for 100×100 ?m2 pixel area and low noise constant (K1/f) value of 4.4×10-15 is presented. The outstanding performance of these devices is due to Ni silicide contacts, smooth interfaces, and high quality of multi quantum wells (MQWs) containing high Ge content.The novel idea of generating local strain using Ge multi quantum dots structures has also been studied. Ge dots were deposited at different growth temperatures in order to tune the intermixing of Si into Ge. The structures demonstrated a noise constant of 2×10-9 and TCR of 3.44%/K for pixel area of 70×70 ?m2. These structures displayed an improvement in the TCR value compared to quantum well structures; however, strain relaxation and unevenness of the multi layer structures caused low signal–to–noise ratio. In this thesis, the physical importance of different design parameters of IR detectors has been quantified by using a statistical analysis. The factorial method has been applied to evaluate design parameters for IR detection improvements. Among design parameters, increasing the Ge content of SiGe quantum wells has the most significant effect on the measured TCR value.
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