LES of Jets and Sprays Injected into Crossflow
Abstract: The objective of this thesis is to numerically simulate a fluid jet injected into a crossflow of the same or another fluid, respectively. Such flows are encountered in many engineering applications in which cooling or mixing plays an important role, e.g. gas turbine combustors. The jet in crossflow (JICF) is used both for cooling and for injecting liquid fuel into the air stream prior to combustion. The numerical simulations regard three space dimensions and track also the flow dynamics by integrating the governing equations in time. The spatial and the temporal resolution are such that the large-scale flow structures are resolved. Such an approach is referred to as large eddy simulations (LES). The motion of the fuel droplets is treated by Lagrangian particle tracking (LPT) with the stochastic parcel method, along with submodels for evaporation, collision, breakup, and a novel submodel for aerodynamic four-way coupling: The particle drag is corrected depending on relative positions of the particles. Mixture fraction and temperature transport equations are solved to enable the modeling of droplet evaporation and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with ambient air. In the simulations of multiphase JICF, several computed results are shown to be inconsistent with the underlying assumptions of the LPT approach: The magnitude of the Weber numbers indicates that droplets are not spherical in large portions of the flow field in wide ranges of parameters which are relevant for gas turbine operation. The magnitude of the droplet spacing suggests that aerodynamic interaction (indirect four-way coupling) among droplets may be important. The LES with aerodynamic four-way coupling reveals significant effects compared to two-way coupling for monodisperse particles in a dense multiphase flow. For single-phase JICF, the impact of nozzle shape on the large-scale coherent structures and the mixing is studied. Effects of circular, square, and elliptic nozzles and their orientation are considered. It is demonstrated that square and elliptic nozzles with blunt orientation raise turbulence levels significantly. The scalar distribution in a cross-sectional plane is found to be single-peaked for these nozzles whereas circular and the nozzles with pointed orientation show double-peaked scalar distribution. It is the nozzles with a single-peaked distribution which are the better mixers. The differences and similarities of single- and multiphase JICF are compared, and it is demonstrated that the flow field solution for multiphase flow approaches the flow field solution of single-phase flow in the limit of small Stokes numbers.
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