Extinction in Molecular Clouds Case of Barnard 335

University dissertation from Stockholm : Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University

Abstract: The Bok globule B335 is a small molecular cloud in the solar neighbourhood near the galactic plane. The aim for this three-paper-study is to construct and analyze the extinction for this globule.The method we apply is to use the light from field stars behind the cloud in broadband filters ranging from UV to the mid-infrared. We have observations performed at the ESO telescopes at La Silla and Paranal as well as at the Nordic 2.5 m telescope at La Palma. Together with images and spectra from 2MASS-, ISO- and Spitzer-archives we are able to cover the wavelength range from 0.35 to 24 ?m. An important tool to analyze these observations results in order to get the extinction is the grid of synthetic stellar atmospheric spectra provided by Hauschildt (2005).The extinction so received is a result in itself. From the analysis of the extinction wavelength dependence we derive properties of the dust, especially its composition and grain size distribution. By modeling the grain size distribution we are able to find the extinction from the reddening of the stars.We find that the extinction in the optical wavelength 0.35 to 2 ?m range nicely follows the functional form described by Cardelli et al. (1989). Our result from the wavelength range redward of 2 ?m show an extinction dependent on the part of the cloud examined. For the rim of the cloud we get an extinction similar to that reported earlier for the diffuse interstellar medium. From the central parts of the cloud, however, a higher extinction was found. Our grain size model contains a carbonaceous particle distribution and a silicate one. The result can be explained by depletion of carbon onto carbonaceous grains and also by carbon onto all grains including the silicates.Our modeling of the extinction and our classification of the background stars allow us to- determine the distance to the globule- estimate the gas column density ratio- estimate the mass of globule- get a handle on the dust conversion processes through the grain size distribution From the water- and CO-ice spectra we are able to estimate the ice column densities. We find similar ice column densities for the two ices. The estimates differ, when calculated from band strengths or from Lorenz-Mie calculations of ice mantles on the grain size distribution, by a factor of two.