Sarcoma of the female genital tract : Histopathology, DNA cytometry, p53 and mdm-2 analysis related to prognosis
Abstract: Sarcomas of the female genital tract are rare tumors and account for less than 5% of gynecologic malignancies. Traditionally, gynecologic sarcomas have been divided into different tumor types according to their histopathological features. The most common are leiomyosarcoma (LMS), malignant mixed Müllerian tumors (MMMT), endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) and (Müllerian) adenosarcoma. The different tumor types are highly aggressive with early lymphatic and/or hematogenous spread. Treatment is difficult and it is believed that sarcomas have a low radio-and chemosensitivity, and the mainstay in treatment is surgical removal of the tumor. The most important prognostic feature has been tumor stage. Nevertheless, there are some early-stage tumors that run a biological course different from that expected and additional prognostic factors indicating high-risk tumors are desirable.The study cohort consists of 49 uterine LMS, 44 uterine MMMTs, 17 uterine ESS, 11 uterine adenosarcomas and 26 ovarian MMMTs. The tumors were analyzed in a retrospective manner for DNA ploidy, S-phase fraction (SPF), p53 and mdm-2 expression, as well as traditional clinical and pathological prognostic factors, such as tumor stage. grade, atypia and mitotic index.Of the 49 LMS, 36 (86%) were non-diploid and 13 (27%) were p53-positive. Among the 44 uterine MMMTs, 30 (68%) were non-diploid and 27 (61%) had an SPF>10%. Twenty-seven (61%) overexpressed p53 and 11 (25%) were mdm-2 positive. Furthermore, 40 (91%) of the uterine MMMTs had a high mitotic count and 42 (95%) had high grade cytologic atypia. All low-grade ESS were DNA diploid and had a low SPF. Among the four high-grade ESS, three (75%) were DNA aneuploid and three (75%) were p53-positive. Among 1 1 adenosarcomas, eight (73%) were non-diploid. All ovarian MMMTs were non-diploid and all but two had an SPF>10%. 19 (73%) ovarian MMMTs were p53positive.The 5-year survival rate was 33% for LMS, 38% for uterine MMMT, 57% for ESS, 69% for adenosarcoma and 30% for ovarian MMMT.Thirty-five (71%) patients with LMS died of disease and two of intercurrent disease. Stage was found to be the most important factor for survival (p=0.007); in addition DNA ploidy (p=0.045) and SPF (p=0.041) had prognostic significance.Twenty-seven (61%) patients with uterine MMMT died of disease and six (14%) died of intercurrent disease. Stage was the only prognostic factor for survival.Nine (53%) patients with ESS died of disease. There was a significant correlation of survival to tumor grade (p=0.007), DNA ploidy (p=0.026), SPF (p=0.048) and stage (p=0.026).Of the 11 patients with adenosarcoma, four (36%) patients died of disease and three (27%) patients died of intercurrent disease. There were no variables that correlated with survival.Eighteen (69%) patients with ovarian MMMT died of disease and two (8%) patients died of intercurrent disease. In a multivariate analysis, only stage reached independent prognostic significance for survival (p=0.023).In summary, stage represents the most important prognostic factor for survival for uterine and ovarian sarcomas. DNA flow cytometry is useful in gaining additional prognostic information for LMS and ESS. P53-and mdm-2 overexpression had no prognostic value for survival rate. Most of the MMMT overexpressed p53 and were non-diploid. Treatment of sarcomatous neoplasms is difficult and the mainstay remains surgical removal of the tumor. For patients with early stage sarcoma there was a high recurrence rate, which suggests that a large proportion of patients may have systemic micrometastasic disease at the time of diagnosis. Recurrent and metastatic uterine sarcoma remains an incurable disease, and treatment must be considered palliative.
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