New Techniques for Chiral Separations

University dissertation from Karlstad : Karlstads universitet

Abstract: Gas chromatography (GC) has been utilized for the study of enantiomer resolution of the atropisomers of PCBs, o,p´-DDD and o,p´-DDT. Different substituents and concentrations of cyclodextrin, capillary dimensions and type of stationary phase films have been investigated to achieve the resolution of as many of the atropisomers on one column as possible. The results indicated that the butyl substitution of 6-hydroxyl and the methyl substitution of 2- and 3-hydroxyl were the most promising for the enantiomeric separation. Using Capillary Electrophoresis (CE), the trimers and monomers of PM-β-CDs were compared for enantiomeric resolution, as well as comparing the cationic PMMA-β-CD with the anionic HS-β-CD. In these studies the trimer did not show an improved resolution for mepivacaine, when compared to the equimolar concentration of the monomer. The cationic CD gave increased resolution values for ibuprofen when compared to the anionic CD. A scheme for reversing enantiomeric elution order of both the basic propranolol and acidic ibuprofen is also presented, with the aim of facilitating the detection of impurities in a high sample loading. The detection of 1% of each enantiomer of propranolol, and 1% of R(-)-ibuprofen, was demonstrated, with elution prior to the tailing peak of the corresponding enantiomer. Dimethylacrylamide-coated capillaries were used in this work, and the stability of this coating was demonstrated, giving a highly reduced electroosmotic flow for up to six months. Enantiomeric baseline separations of omeprazole and 5-hydroxyomeprazole have also been achieved with both CE and Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatography (OT-CEC) methods. With CE-UV, both a non-aqueous method (using HDMS-β-CD) and an aqueous method (using HS-β-CD) were used for enantiomeric resolution of the two racemates. Resolution of omeprazole was also achieved using CE-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS). In OT-CEC, avidin was immobilized on the inside surface of a fused silica capillary and was employed as chiral selector for the enantiomeric baseline resolution of omeprazole and 5-hydroxyomeprazole.

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