Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Design Parameters Defining Gas Turbine Nozzle Guide Vane Endwall Heat Transfer
Abstract: The primary requirements for a modern industrial gas turbine consist of a continuous trend of an increasing efficiency combined with very low emissions in a robust, cost-effective manner. To fulfil these tasks a high turbine inlet temperature together with advanced dry low NOX combustion chambers are employed. These dry low NOX combustion chambers generate a rather flat temperature profile compared to previous generation gas turbines, which have a rather parabolic temperature profile before the nozzle guide vane. This means that the nozzle guide vane endwall heat load for modern gas turbines is much higher compared to previous generation gas turbines. Therefore the prediction of the nozzle guide vane flow field and endwall heat transfer is crucial for the engineering task of the design layout of the vane endwall cooling system.The present study is directed towards establishing new in-depth aerodynamic and endwall heat transfer knowledge for an advanced nozzle guide vane of a modern industrial gas turbine. To reach this objective the physical processes and effects which cause the different flow fields and the endwall heat transfer pattern in a baseline configuration, a combustion chamber variant, a heat shield variant without and with additional cooling air and a cavity variant without and with additional cooling air have been investigated. The variants, which differ from the simplified baseline configuration, apply design elements which are commonly used in real modern gas turbines. This research area is crucial for the nozzle guide vane endwall heat transfer, especially for the advanced design of the nozzle guide vane of a modern industrial gas turbine and has so far hardly been investigated in the open literature.For the experimental aerodynamic and endwall heat transfer research of the baseline configuration of the advanced nozzle guide vane geometry a new low pressure, low temperature test facility has been developed, designed and constructed, since no experimental heat transfer data exist in the open literature for this type of vane configuration. The new test rig consists of a linear cascade with the baseline configuration of the advanced nozzle guide vane geometry with four upscaled airfoils and three flow passages. For the aerodynamic tests the two middle airfoils and the hub and the tip endwall are instrumented with pressure taps to monitor the Mach number distribution. For the heat transfer tests the temperature distribution on the hub endwall is measured via thermography. The analysis of these measurements, including comparisons to research in the open literature shows that the new test rig generates accurate and reproducible results which give confidence that it is a reliable tool for the experimental aerodynamic and heat transfer research on the advanced nozzle guide vane of a modern industrial gas turbine.Previous own research work together with the numerical analysis performed in another part of the project as well as conclusions from a detailed literature study lead to the conclusion that advanced Navier-Stokes CFD tools with the v2-f turbulence model are most suitable for the calculation of the flow field and the endwall heat transfer of turbine vanes and blades. Therefore this numerical tool, validated against different vane and blade geometries and for different flow conditions, has been chosen for the numerical aerodynamic and endwall heat transfer research of the advanced nozzle guide vane of a modern industrial gas turbine.The evaluation of the numerical and experimental investigations of the baseline configuration of the advanced design of a nozzle guide vane shows the flow field of an advanced mid-loaded airfoil design with the features to reduce total airfoil losses. For the hub endwall of the baseline configuration of the advanced design of a nozzle guide vane the flow characteristics and heat transfer features of the classical vane endwall secondary flow model can be detected with a very weak intensity and geometric extension compared to the studies of less advanced vane geometries in the open literature. A detailed analysis of the numerical simulations and the experimental data showed very good qualitative and quantitative agreement for the three-dimensional flow field and the endwall heat transfer. These findings, together with the evaluations obtained from the open literature, lead to the conclusions that selected CFD software Fluent together with the applied v2-f turbulence model exhibits a high level of general applicability and is not tuned to a special vane or blade geometry. Therefore the CFD code Fluent with the v2-f turbulence model has been selected for the research of the influence of the several geometric variants of the baseline configuration on the flow field and the hub endwall heat transfer of the advanced nozzle guide vane of a modern industrial gas turbine.Most of the vane endwall heat transfer research in the open literature has been carried out only for baseline configurations of the flow path between combustion chamber and nozzle guide vane. Such a simplified geometry consists of a long, planar undisturbed approach length upstream of the nozzle guide vane. The design of real modern industrial gas turbines however requires often significant variations from this baseline configuration consisting of air-cooled heat shields and purged cavities between the combustion chamber and the nozzle guide vane. A detailed evaluation of the flow field and the endwall heat transfer shows major differences between the baseline and the heat shield configuration. The heat shield in front of the airfoil of the nozzle guide vane influences the secondary flow field and the endwall heat transfer pattern strongly. Additional cooling air, released under the heat shield has a distinctive influence as well. Also the cavity between the combustion chamber and the nozzle guide vane affects the secondary flow field and the endwall heat transfer pattern. Here the influence of additional cavity cooling air is more decisive. The results of the detailed studies of the geometric variants are applied to formulate guidelines for an optimized design of the flow path between the combustion chamber and the nozzle guide vane and the nozzle guide vane endwall cooling configuration of next-generation industrial gas turbines.
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