Chemical Vapor Depositionof Si and SiGe Films for High-Speed Bipolar Transistors

University dissertation from Kista : Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik

Abstract: This thesis deals with the main aspects in chemical vapordeposition (CVD) of silicon (Si) and silicon-germanium (Si1-xGex) films for high-speed bipolar transistors.In situdoping of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si)using phosphine (PH3) and disilane (Si2H6) in a low-pressure CVD reactor was investigated toestablish a poly-Si emitter fabrication process. The growthkinetics and P incorporation was studied for amorphous Si filmgrowth. Hydrogen (H) incorporated in the as-deposited films wasrelated to growth kinetics and the energy for H2desorption was extracted. Film properties such asresistivity, mobility, carrier concentration and grain growthwere studied after crystallization using either furnaceannealing or rapid thermal annealing (RTA). In order tointegrate an epitaxial base, non-selective epitaxial growth(NSEG) of Si and SiGe in a lamp-heated single-waferreduced-pressure CVD reactor was examined. The growth kineticsfor Si epitaxy and poly-Si deposition showed a differentdependence on the deposition conditions i.e. temperature andpressure. The growth rate difference was mainly due to growthkinetics rather than wafer surface emissivity effects. However,it was observed that the growth rate for Si epitaxy and poly-Sideposition was varying during growth and the time-dependencewas attributed to wafer surface emissivity variations. A modelto describe the emissivity effects was established, taking intoconsideration kinetics and the reactor heating mechanisms suchas heat absorption, emission andconduction. Growth ratevariations in opening of different sizes (local loading) andfor different oxide surface coverage (global loading) wereinvestigated. No local loading effects were observed, whileglobal loading effects were attributed to chemical as well astemperature effects. Finally, misfit dislocations formed in theSiGe epitaxy during NSEG were found to originate from theinterface between the epitaxial and polycrystalline regions.The dislocations tended to propagate across the activearea.Keywords:chemical vapor deposition (CVD), bipolarjunction transistor (BJT), heterojunction bipolar transistor(HBT), silicon-germanium (SiGe), epitaxy, poly-Si emitter,in situdoping, non-selective epitaxy (NSEG), loadingeffect, emissivity effect