Autogenous free tooth transplantation with a two-stage operation technique

Abstract: If tooth transplantation is to succeed, it is crucial to preserve the vitality of the cells on the root surface of the tooth transplant. Insufficient nutrition, postoperatively, to the cells on the root surface of the tooth transplant was thought to contribute to devitalisation of these cells. Impaired nutrition may be a result of poor contact between the recipient bed and the root surface of the transplanted tooth, and an interposed blood clot developing. To improve the postoperative nutrition to the root surface cells, teeth were transplanted to the recipient beds in which the tissues were regenerated during a 14 days period, i.e., the two-stage transplantation technique. In a clinical study of this technique, a total of 95 autogenous teeth with fully developed roots were transplanted in 84 patients, and examined both clinically and radiographically up to 13 years after the transplantation. In a dog model, a comparative experimental study was made between teeth transplanted to beds left to heal for 5 days and teeth transplanted to beds prepared immediately before the transplantation. The clinical study showed a low prevalence of tooth graft loss and root resorption even when infection of the root canal occurred. Periodontal attachment loss of less than 3 mm was found in 97% of 6 defined surfaces around the transplanted teeth. Transplanted teeth which were later on extracted were often hypermobile and signalled pain when provoked with heavy loading. Excessive extraction trauma, fixation failures and excessive plaque accumulation after transplantation were all shown to be detrimental to the tooth transplant. Transplanted teeth were used as abutments for fixed partial dentures and provided the necessary dental support for crowns and bridges even for patients with atrophic alveolar bone. The experimental histological study showed no difference between test and control teeth in the prevalence of root resorption, which was suspected to be caused by traumatic injuries to the roots during extraction and non-rigid fixation of the transplanted teeth.

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