Improving Machining System Performance through designed-in Damping : Modelling, Analysis and Design Solutions

Abstract: With advances in material technology, allowing, for instance, engines to withstand higher combustion pressure and consequently improving performance, comes challenges to productivity. These materials are, in fact, more difficult to machine with regards to tool wear and especially machine tool stability. Machining vibrations have historically been one of the major limitations to productivity and product quality and the cost of machining vibration for cylinder head manufacturing has been estimated at 0.35 euro per part.The literature review shows that most of the research on cutting stability has been concentrating on the use of the stability limits diagram (SLD), addressing the limitations of this approach. On the other hand, research dedicated to development of machine tool components designed for chatter avoidance has been concentrating solely on one component at the time.This thesis proposes therefore to extend the stability limits of the machining system by enhancing the structure’s damping capability via a unified concept based on the distribution of damping within the machining system exploiting the joints composing the machine tool structure. The design solution proposed is based on the enhancement of damping of joint through the exploitation of viscoelastic polymers’ damping properties consciously designed as High Damping Interfaces (HDI).The tool-turret joint and the turret-lathe joint have been analysed. The computational models for dimensioning the HDI’s within these joints are presented in the thesis and validated by the experiments. The models offer the possibility of consciously design damping in the machining system structure and balance it with regards to the needed stiffness.These models and the experimental results demonstrate that the approach of enhancing joint damping is viable and effective. The unified concept of the full chain of redesigned components enables the generation of the lowest surface roughness over the whole range of tested cutting parameters. The improved machining system is not affected by instability at any of the tested cutting parameters and offers an outstanding surface quality.The major scientific contribution of this thesis is therefore represented by the proposed unified concept for designing damping in a machining system alongside the models for computation and optimisation of the HDIs.From the industrial application point of view, the presented approach allows the end user to select the most suitable parameters in terms of productivity as the enhanced machine tool system becomes less sensitive to stability issues provoked by difficult-to-machine materials or fluctuations of the work material properties that may occur in ordinary production processes.