Energy Management and Control of Electrical Drives in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles

University dissertation from Department of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation, Lund Institute of Technology

Abstract: Hybrid vehicles have attracted tremendous attention during the last years. Increasing environmental concern and a steady increase in fuel prices are key factors for the growing interest. Hybrid vehicles, which benefits from having at least two different energy converters and two different energy storage systems, have proven to have significant potential to improve fuel economy without reducing the performance of the vehicle. However, the extra degree of freedom inherited by the use of two energy sources on-board the vehicle, gives rise to a more complicated energy management control. The first part of the thesis treats the subject of energy management in hybrid electrical vehicles. The gain in fuel consumption and the minimization of emissions are highly dependent on the performance of the control strategy. A rather simple heuristic control strategy presented in the literature is optimized. Heuristic control strategies are often referred to as hard to tune, and none optimal. However, the result presented in the thesis shows that the strategy is easily tuned, robust and has no significant cycle-beating trait. Dynamic programming is used to obtain a global optimal solution to the control problem. The result of this global optimization is then used as a basis for evaluating the real-time heuristic control strategy and serves as a lower bound for the fuel consumption for a given cycle. A comparison of fuel consumption for the two control strategies shows that, though being quite simple, the heuristic control strategy gives a relatively near-optimal result. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the development of an electrically driven rear axle for a HEV in collaboration with SAAB Automobile. A rear drive unit, consisting of an electrical machine, planetary gear and a differential, was provided by SAAB. Focus is on control and thermal modeling of the electrical machine. A simple and effective field weakening controller, giving fast field weakening performance is proposed. The fast field weakening performance is important in a HEV since the battery voltage undergoes rapid variations, during accelerations. In addition to this, the FWC minimizes the torque-per-current ratio by, for a given torque, using the current combination yielding the minimal stator current. In addition to this, a thermal model based on several thermal measurements is proposed and validated against data. The thermal model forms the basis for the derivation of an over temperature controller, preventing the machine from over heating.