Radio waves in the ionosphere : Propagation, generation and detection

Abstract: We discuss various topics concerning the propagation, generation, and detec-tionof high-frequency (HF) radio waves in the Earth's ionosphere. With re-gardsto propagation, we derive a full wave Hamiltonian and a polarization evo-lutionequation for electromagnetic waves in a cold, stratified magnetoplasma.With regards to generation, we will be concerned with three experiments con-ducted at the ionosphere- radio wave interaction research facilities at Sura, Rus-siaand Tromsø, Norway. These facilities operate high power HF transmittersthat can inject large amplitude electromagnetic waves into the ionosphere andexcite numerous nonlinear processes. In an experiment conducted at the Surafacility, we were able to measure the full state of polarization of stimulatedelectromagnetic emissions for the first time. It is expected that by using thetechnique developed in this experiment it will be possible to study nonlinearpolarization effects on powerful HF pump waves in magnetoplasmas in the fu-ture.In another experiment conducted at the Sura facility, the pump frequencywas swept automatically allowing rapid, high-resolution measurements of SEEdependence on pump frequency with minimal variations in ionospheric condi-tions.At the Tromsø facility we discovered by chance a highly variable, pumpinduced, HF emission that most probably emanated from pump excited spo-radicE. Regarding detection, we have proposed a set of Stokes parametersgeneralized to three dimension space; and we have used these parameters in aninvention to detect the incoming direction of electromagnetic waves of multiplefrequencies from a single point measurement.