Baggy paper webs Effect of uneven moisture and grammage profiles in different process steps
Abstract: One of the problems encountered in paper converting is caused by the occurrence of "baggy webs", which essentially is when the tension profile of the paper web is uneven. In an area with low tension the paper is longer, which results in bagginess. The baggy parts can not usually be stretched to even out the tension of the paper web in a converting machine, with the result that runnability problems are likely to occur.The aim of the work described in this thesis was to investigate three particular stages in papermaking, namely drying, calendering and storage, and rank them according to their propensity for inducing baggy webs. The focus was placed on investigating the effects of uneven moisture and grammage profiles on the machine-direction strain difference profile.The largest strain difference occurred when there were systematic thick streaks throughout a reel that formed ridges. Stress relaxation during storage then gave rise to a difference in strain of 0.14% when the ridge height was around 2-3 mm. Thickness variations due to variations in grammage is also a source of moisture variation.A difference in moisture of 5% in the calendering stage resulted in strain differences of about 0.05-0.08%. These strain differences resulted in creases being formed as early on as in the calender nip when differences in both grammage and moisture content were present. Most creases appeared when the moisture difference was 2-8%. The difference in grammage could be large without creases being formed when no differences in moisture content were present.A moisture difference of about 5-6% during drying resulted in a strain difference of 0.1% measured on isotropic samples. The moist area turned into a tight streak when the moisture difference appeared at moisture contents higher than 25%. At moisture contents lower than 20%, on the contrary, the moist area turned into a slack streak.The conclusion drawn is that papermakers should concentrate first and foremost on eliminating variations in grammage, especially if these are systematic. This would also eliminate some variations in moisture content, which would solve more problems.
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