Mechanisms for TGF-β-Mediated Regulation of the Actin Filament System and Apoptosis
Abstract: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a member of a large superfamily of cytokines which participate in many different types of cellular processes, such as growth inhibition, cell migration, differentiation, cell adhesion, wound healing and immunosuppression. Alterations of TGF-β superfamily signalling results in several different disorders, including bone disease, vascular disease and cancer. The TGF-β signalling pathways involve several different proteins, such as the Smad proteins, which upon receptor activation are translocated to the nucleus, where they affect transcriptional responses. The actin cytoskeleton is an organised network of filaments with a highly dynamic structure, which is under a continuous reconstruction to control the morphology, survival, growth and motility of eukaryotic cells. The members of the family of small GTP-binding proteins have been shown to be important regulators of the actin cytoskeleton.TGF-β was found to induce short term as well as long term actin reorganisation in prostate cancer cells. The short term response included membrane ruffling, and required signalling by the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rho as well as, the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 (p38 MAPK). The long term response included formation of stress fibers and required a cooperation between Smad and Rho GTPase signalling pathways involving the Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1). The TGF-β-induced activation of Cdc42 was, furthermore, shown to require the inhibitory Smad7 and p38 MAP kinase, via a PI3K-dependent pathway. Mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3), a mediator downstream of Cdc42, was necessary for the Cdc42-dependent actin filament reorganisation.Apoptosis is an important and carefully regulated process in human development and disease, which allows the multicellular organisms to remove cells that are in excess or potentially dangerous. TGF-β family members can induce apoptosis in many different cell types, in the presence or absence of other growth factors. Smad7 had previously been shown to be necessary for TGF-β-induced apoptosis of epithelial cells. We could show that Smad7 is required for TGF-β-induced activation of the TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3)-p38 MAPK pathway, which subsequently leads to apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.Members of the lymphoid enhancer factor-1/T-cell factor (LEF1/TCF) family of transcription factors have, together with β-catenin, been shown to be nuclear effectors in the Wnt-signalling pathway. We investigated a possible cross-talk between the TGF-β and Wnt signalling pathways. We found that TGF-β, in a Smad7-dependent manner induced a nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and enhanced the transcriptional activity of β-catenin and the induction of the downstream target gene c-myc. Since β-catenin and c-Myc has been shown to promote apoptosis, our results suggests the possibility that β-catenin contributes to TGF-β-induced apoptosis
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