Exploring C2 Capability and Effectiveness in Challenging Situations : Interorganizational Crisis Management, Military Operations and Cyber Defence

Abstract: Modern societies are affected by various threats and hazards, including natural disasters, cyber-attacks, extreme weather events and inter-state conflicts. Managing these challenging situations requires immediate actions, suspension of ordinary procedures, decision making under uncertainty and coordinated action. In other words, challenging situations put high demands on the command and control (C2) capability. To strengthen the capability of C2, it is vital to identify the prerequisites for effective coordination and direction within the domain of interest. This thesis explores C2 capability and effectiveness in three domains: interorganizational crisis management, military command and control, and cyber defence operations. The thesis aims to answer three research questions: (1) What constitutes C2 capability? (2) What constitutes C2 effectiveness? and (3) How can C2 effectiveness be assessed? The work was carried out as two case studies and one systematic literature review. The main contributions of the thesis are the identification of perspectives of C2 capability in challenging situations and an overview of approaches to C2 effectiveness assessment. Based on the results of the three studies, six recurring perspectives of capability in the domains studied were identified: interaction (collaboration), direction and coordination, relationships, situation awareness, resilience and preparedness. In the domains there are differences concerning which perspectives that are most emphasized in order obtain C2 capability. C2 effectiveness is defined as the extent to which a C2 system is successful in achieving its intended result. The thesis discusses the interconnectedness of performance and effectiveness measures, and concludes that there is not a united view on the difference between measures of effectiveness and measures of performance. Different approaches to effectiveness assessment were identified, where assessment may be conducted based on one specific issue, in relation to a defined goal for a C2 function or using a more exploratory approach.

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