Antibiotic Resistance: A Multimethod Investigation of Individual Responsibility and Behaviour

Abstract: The rapid development of antibiotic resistance is directly related to how antibiotics are used in society. The international effort to decrease and optimise the use of antibiotics should be sustained by the development of policies that are sensitive to social and cultural contexts.The overarching aim of the thesis was to explore and discuss the Swedish public’s beliefs, values and preferences influencing engagement in judicious antibiotic behaviour.Study I explored through focus group discussions lay people’s perceptions and beliefs about antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. The Health Belief Model was used to identify factors that could promote or hinder engagement in judicious antibiotic behaviour. Participants found antibiotic resistance to be a serious problem but were not equally worried about being affected by it. There was a tension between individual and collective reasons for engaging in judicious behaviour.Study II explored lay people’s views on the moral challenges posed by antibiotic resistance through focus group discussions. Participants identified in the decreasing availability of effective antibiotics a problem of justice, which involves individual as well as collective moral responsibility. Different levels of policy demandingness were discussed in light of these results.Study III investigated, through an online Discrete Choice Experiment, public preferences regarding antibiotic treatment and the relative weight of antibiotic resistance in decision-making. Public behaviour may be influenced by concerns over the rise of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, stressing individual responsibility for antibiotic resistance in clinical and societal communication may affect personal decision-making.Study IV clarified the notions of collective and individual moral responsibility for antibiotic resistance and suggested a virtue-based account thereof. While everyone is morally responsible for minimising his/her own contribution to antibiotic resistance, individuals do or do not engage in judicious antibiotic behaviour with different degrees of voluntariness.The findings suggest that people could change their behaviour due to concerns over their own contribution to antibiotic resistance. Effective health communication should be developed from an appraisal of people’s attitudes, beliefs and social norms that influence antibiotic resistance related behaviours. Policy demandingness should take into account socioeconomic factors characterising local realities.