Car crashes with two-wheelers in China: Proposal and assessment of C-NCAP automated emergency braking test scenarios

Abstract: In China, around 15,000 users of two-wheelers (TWs) die on the road every year. Passenger cars are the dominating crash opponent of TWs in road traffic crashes. Understanding the characteristics of car crashes with TWs is essential to enhance cars’ safety performance and improve the safety of TW riders in China. This thesis has three objectives. First, to define test scenarios of Automated Emergency Braking systems for cars encountering TWs (TW-AEB) in China (Paper I). Second, to assess whether cars with good ratings in consumer safety rating programs (e.g., New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) are also likely to perform well in the real-world. Finally, to understand the characteristics of the car crashes with TWs after the TW-AEB application. To achieve the first objective, cluster analysis was applied to the China In-Depth Accident Study (CIDAS). The results were six test scenarios (Paper I), which are proposed for the Chinese NCAP (C-NCAP) TW-AEB testing. To achieve the second and third objectives, counterfactual virtual simulations were performed with and without TW-AEB to a) a C-NCAP TW-AEB test scenario set ; b) an alternative scenario set based on the results of Paper I; and c) real-world crashes in China. Results show much higher crash avoidance rate and lower impact speed were found for C-NCAP scenario set than for the other two sets. To better reflect car crashes with TW in China, longitudinal same-direction scenarios with the car or TW turning and perpendicular scenarios with high TW traveling speed are recommended to be included in C-NCAP future releases. Future work will focus on assessing the combined benefit of preventive and protective safety systems for car-to-TW crashes in China.

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