Antenna Designs Aiming at the Next Generation of Wireless Communication
Abstract: Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies have drawn large attention, specically for the fifth generation (5G) of wireless communication, due to their capability to provide high data-rates. However, design and characterization of the antenna system in wireless communication will face new challenges when we move up to higher frequency bands. The small size of the components at higher frequencies will make the integration of the antennas in the system almost inevitable. Therefore, the individual characterization of the antenna can become more challenging compared to the previous generations. This emphasizes the importance of having a reliable, simple and yet meaningful Over-the-Air (OTA) characterization method for the antenna systems. To avoid the complexity of using a variety of propagation environments in the OTA performance characterization, two extreme or edge scenarios for the propagation channels are presented, i.e., the Rich Isotropic Multipath (RIMP) and Random Line-of-Sight (Random-LoS). MIMO efficiency has been defined as a Figure of Merit (FoM), based on the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of the received signal, due to the statistical behavior of the signal in both RIMP and Random-LoS. Considering this approach, we have improved the design of a wideband antenna for wireless application based on MIMO efficiency as the FoM of the OTA characterization in a Random-LoS propagation environment. We have shown that the power imbalance and the polarization orthogonality plays major roles determining the 2-bitstream MIMO performance of the antenna in Random-LoS. In addition, a wideband dual-polarized linear array is designed for an OTA Random-LoS measurement set-up for automotive wireless systems. The next generation of wireless communications is extended throughout multiple narrow frequency bands, varying within 20-70 GHz. Providing an individual antenna system for each of these bands may not be feasible in terms of cost, complexity and available physical space. Therefore, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) antenna arrays, covering multiple mm-wave frequency bands represent a versatile candidate for these antenna systems. In addition to having wideband characteristics, these antennas should offer an easy integration capability with the active modules. We present a new design of UWB planar arrays for mm-wave applications. The novelty is to propose planar antenna layouts to provide large bandwidth at mm-wave frequencies, using simplified standard PCB manufacturing techniques. The proposed antennas are based on Tightly Coupled Dipole Arrays (TCDAs) concept with integrated feeding network.
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