On self-efficacy and balance after stroke
Abstract: The general aim of this work was to evaluate the outcome of specialised stroke rehabilitation and to examine the relation between both subjectively perceived and objectively assessed balance and impairments and some activity limitations. A further, integrated aim was to establish some psychometric properties and the usability of a newly developed Falls-Efficacy Scale, Swedish version (FES(S)) in stroke rehabilitation.Seventy-three patients younger than 70 years of age with a first stroke and reduced walking ability were randomised into an intervention group (walking on a treadmill with body weight support) and a control group (walking on the ground). Time points of assessment were: on admission for rehabilitation, at discharge and 10 months after stroke. Walking training on a treadmill with body weight support and walking training on the ground were found to be equally effective in the early rehabilitation. The patients in both groups improved their walking velocity, motor function, balance, self-efficacy and ADL performance.In a geriatric sample of 37 stroke patients examined at similar time points, significant improvements in self-efficacy, motor function, balance, ambulation and ADL occurred from admission to discharge independently of age. In comparison with observer-based balance measures, FES(S) at discharge was the most powerful predictor of ADL performance 10 months after onset of stroke.In 30 patients with stable stroke, the overall test-retest reliability of FES(S) was found to be adequate. The internal consistency confirmed that FES(S) has an adequate homogeneity.In a subsample of 62 patients from the original sample and in the geriatric sample, FES(S) correlated significantly with Berg’s balance scale, the Fugl-Meyer balance scale, with motor function and with gait performance. In the relatively younger group ADL (measured by the Functional Independence Measurement) correlated significantly with FES(S) on admission and at 10 months follow-up, while at discharge none of the FES(S) measures correlated significantly with ADL. In this subsample effect size statistics for detecting changes in FES(S) demonstrated very acceptable responsiveness of this scale during the early treatment period and during the total observation periodIn the light of these findings assessment and treatment of self-efficacy seems relevant in stroke rehabilitation.
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