Kinematic Control of Redundant Knuckle Booms with Automatic Path Following Functions
Abstract: To stay competitive internationally, the Swedish forestry sector must increase its productivity by 2 to 3% annually. There are a variety of ways in which productivity can be increased. One option is to develop remote-controlled or unmanned machines, thus reducing the need for operator intervention. Another option—and one that could be achieved sooner than full automation—would be to make some functions semi-automatic. Semi-automatic operation of the knuckle boom and felling head in particular would create “mini-breaks” for the operators, thereby reducing mental and physiological stress. It would also reduce training time and increase the productivity of a large proportion of operators.The objective of this thesis work has been to develop and evaluate algorithms for simplified boom control on forest machines. Algorithms for so called boom tip control, as well as automatic boom functions have been introduced. The algorithms solve the inverse kinematics of kinematically redundant knuckle booms while maximizing lifting capacity. The boom tip control was evaluated – first by means of a kinematic simulation and then in a dynamic forest machine simulator. The results show that boom tip control is an easier system to learn in comparison to conventional control, leading to savings in production due to shorter learning times and operators being able to reach full production sooner. Boom tip control also creates less mental strain than conventional control, which in the long run will reduce mental stress on operators of forest machines. The maximum lifting capacity algorithm was then developed further to enable TCP path-tracking, which was also implemented and evaluated in the simulator.An evaluation of the fidelity of the dynamic forest machine simulator was performed to ensure validity of the results achieved with the simplified boom control. The results from the study show that there is good fidelity between the forest machine simulator and a real forest machine, and that the results from simulations are reliable. It is also concluded that the simulator was a useful research tool for the studies performed in the context of this thesis work.The thesis had two overall objectives. The first was to provide the industry and forestry sector with usable and verified ideas and results in the area of automation. This has been accomplished with the implementation of a simplified boom control and semi-automation on a forwarder in a recently started joint venture between a hydraulic manufacturer, a forest machine manufacturer and a forest enterprise. The second objective was to strengthen the research and development links between the forestry sector and technical university research. This has been accomplished through the thesis work itself and by a number of courses, projects and Masters theses over the last three years. About 150 students in total have been studying forest machine technology in one way or the other.
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