Localization using Magnetometers and Light Sensors

University dissertation from Linköping : Linköping University Electronic Press

Abstract: Localization is essential in a variety of applications such as navigation systems, aerospace and surface surveillance, robotics and animal migration studies to mention a few. There are many standard techniques available, where the most common are based on information from satellite or terrestrial radio beacons, radar networks or vision systems.In this thesis, two alternative techniques are investigated.The first localization technique is based on one or more magnetometers measuring the induced magnetic field from a magnetic object. These measurements depend on the position and the magnetic signature of the object and can be described with models derived from the electromagnetic theory. For this technology, two applications have been analyzed. The first application is traffic surveillance, which has a high need for robust localization systems. By deploying one or more magnetometer in the vicinity of the traffic lane, vehicles can be detected and classified. These systems can be used for safety purposes, such as detecting wrong-way drivers on highways, as well as for statistical purposes by monitoring the traffic flow.The second application is indoor localization, where a mobile magnetometer measures the stationary magnetic field induced by magnetic structures in indoor environments. In this work, models for such magnetic environments are proposed and evaluated.The second localization technique uses light sensors measuring light intensity during day and night. After registering the time of sunrise and sunset from this data, basic formulas from astronomy can be used to locate the sensor. The main application is localization of small migrating animals. In this work, a framework for localizing migrating birds using light sensors is proposed. The framework has been evaluated on data from a common swift, which during a period of ten months was equipped with a light sensor.