Mid-Holocene mineral dust deposition in raised bogs in southern Sweden : Processes and links

Abstract: Atmospheric mineral dust is a key component of the climate system, which affects insolation, brings nutrients to marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and acts as a cloud condensation nuclei. To reconstruct past patterns in terrestrial dust deposition natural archives may be utilized, such as loess, dunes, lakes, and peat bogs. Bogs became an established dust archive in the early 2000s, and the number of studies has since increased. However, most studies use single records to represent dust deposition, meaning that we have limited understanding of regional paleodust dynamics or about the representativeness of single bog records. This thesis aims to address these uncertainties by comparing paleodust deposition between bogs located on a 65 km transect. The thesis includes a methodological development for organic matter removal from peat samples for XRD mineral analysis (Paper I) and two peat paleodust reconstruction studies (Paper II, III). The first paleodust reconstruction from Draftinge Mosse (mosse translates to bog in English), Småland, showed that four dust events (DE) were recorded during the ombrotrophic stage (Paper II). These results were compared to a previously conducted study on Store Mosse, 20 km northeast of Draftinge Mosse, which showed similar patterns in DE and peat accumulation rate (PAR), indicating that the events were at least regional in character. However, the magnitude of the DE differed, which was related to differences in the sizes of the two bogs. The second paleodust reconstruction, from (Davidsmosse) located c. 25 km from the west coast, recorded many more DE (14) compared to the more inland sites (Paper III). Two longer periods saw numerous DE, dominated by coarse particles: between 2800 and 2130 cal BP, and from 1000 towards 490 cal BP. These two periods occurred during regionally cold periods. Human activities also intensified during the latter period, possibly amplifying the DE. Most of these episodic events were not recorded at the inland sites, and the Davidsmosse record seemed to be more in line with previously constructed coastal paleostorm records. That the bog located closer to the coast recorded many more events compared to the inland sites suggests that the location of a bog will influence the aeolian events recorded. However, the DE observed at the inland sites were also recorded at Davidsmosse, indicating that the inland events might represent winds that were sustained over longer distance, or alternatively, that regionally dry conditions prevailed during these periods. The paleostorm records from south-western Sweden, including the new results from Davidsmosse presented here, suggest that storm intensities have varied during the last 3000 years, with increased storminess frequency coupled to colder episodes related to extended sea ice and a southward shift of storm tracks. When comparing DE and PAR at both sites studied here, a recurring pattern of increased accumulation rates were observed during a majority of DE, supporting the suggestion of previous studies that dust deposition may affect peat growth, and thus also peat carbon sequestration.Combining elemental data with XRD mineral analysis enabled anchoring of elemental inferences with mineral observations, allowed identification of authigenic minerals, and aided in source tracing. Despite the fact that local factors affect mineral deposition and PAR, this work has outlined some of the possible mechanisms behind these observations (e.g. distance to the coast, or bog size difference) which may be important for future peat paleodust studies to consider. For example, future studies should include grain size analysis (down-core, as well as across a bog surface); pollen analysis to further elaborate on human activities and vegetation cover; and further investigate differences in mass accumulation rates between bogs.