Experimental multiuser secure quantum communications

University dissertation from Stockholm : Department of Physics, Stockholm University

Abstract: We are currently experiencing a rapid development of quantum information, a new branch of science, being an interdisciplinary of quantum physics, information theory, telecommunications, computer science, and many others. This new science branch was born in the middle of the eighties, developed rapidly during the nineties, and in the current decade has brought a technological breakthrough in creating secure quantum key distribution (QKD), quantum secret sharing, and exciting promises in diverse technological fields. Recent QKD experiments have achieved high rate QKD at 200 km distance in optical fiber. Significant QKD results have also been achieved in free-space.Due to the rapid broadband access deployment in many industrialized countries and the standing increasing transmission security treats, the natural development awaiting quantum communications, being a part of quantum information, is its migration into commercial switched telecom networks. Such a migration concerns both multiuser quantum key distribution and multiparty quantum secret sharing that have been the main goal of my PhD studies. They are also the main concern of the thesis.Our research efforts in multiuser QKD has led to a development of the five-user setup for transmissions over switched fiber networks in a star and in a tree configuration. We have achieved longer secure quantum information distances and implemented more nodes than other multi-user QKD experiments. The measurements have shown feasibility of multiuser QKD over switched fiber networks, using standard fiber telecom components.Since circular architecture networks are important parts of both intranets and the Internet, Sagnac QKD has also been a subject of our research efforts. The published experiments in this area have been very few and results were not encouraging, mainly due to the single mode fiber (SMF) birefringence. Our research has led to a development of a computer controlled birefringence compensation in Sagnac that open the door to both classical and quantum Sagnac applications. On the quantum secret sharing side, we have achieved the first quantum secret sharing experiment over telecom fiber in a five-party implementation using the "plug & play" setup and in a four-party implementation using Sagnac configuration. The setup measurements have shown feasibility and scalability of multiparty quantum communication over commercial telecom fiber networks.