Submicrometre aerosol emissions from sea spray and road traffic
Abstract: The uncertainty of the climate and health effects of aerosols is still large, one important reason being lack of knowledge of the primary emissions. This thesis combines laboratory and field experiments, and process modelling in an effort to better quantify the submicrometre aerosol emissions and to understand some of the processes in the atmosphere.A parameterisation was derived for the source flux of sea salt particles (particles m-2 s-1) in the size range 0.02-2.8 µm dry diameter (Dp), it is the first parameterisation to almost cover two full decades of the submicrometre sea salt aerosol production, and to include the effect of water temperature. This sea salt parameterisation was validated for temperate water in the 0.1-1.1 ?m Dp range using in situ size resolved emissions of marine aerosol particles, which were measured with the eddy covariance (EC) method. For periods sampled air was heated to 300ºC in order to evaporate semi-volatile organics and isolate the sea salt fraction. Comparisons with the total aerosol emissions suggest that in these emissions organic carbon and sea salt are internally mixed in the same particles. Finally an aerosol dynamics model was modified for marine conditions. In the model parameterised emissions of sea salt was included together with aerosol dynamics, chemistry and clouds representative for the marine boundary layer. The sea salt emissions are together with secondary sulphate, and cloud processing able to reproduce a typical marine aerosol size distribution and cloud condensation nuclei population.Measurements with the EC method of the road traffic related aerosol source number flux for Dp>0.011 µm show that the major part of the aerosol fluxes is due to road traffic emissions. Both an emission factor for the whole fleet mix in Stockholm (1.4x1014 vehicle-1 km-1) and separate emission factors for light- and heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) were deduced. The result shows that during weekdays 70-80% of the emissions come from HDV.
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