Improved Energy Efficiency in the Aluminium Industry and its Supply Chains
Abstract: Energy is an essential resource in the daily lives of humans. However, the extraction and use of energy has an impact on the environment. The industrial sector accounts for a large share of the global final energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The largest source of industrial GHG emissions is energy use. The production and processing of aluminium is energy- and GHG-intensive, and uses significant amounts of fossil fuels and electricity. At the same time, the global demand for aluminium is predicted to rise significantly by the year 2050. Improved energy efficiency is one of the most important approaches for reducing industrial GHG emissions. Additionally, improved energy efficiency in industry is a competitive advantage for companies due to the cost reductions that energy efficiency improvements yield.The aim of this thesis was to study improved energy efficiency in the individual companies and the entire supply chains of the aluminium industry. This included studying energy efficiency measures, potentials for energy efficiency improvements and energy savings, and which factors inhibit or drive the work to improve energy efficiency. The aim and the research questions were answered by conducting a literature review, focus groups, questionnaires and calculations of effects on primary energy use, GHG emissions, and energy and CO2 costs.This thesis identified several energy efficiency measures that can be implemented by the individual companies in the aluminium industry and the aluminium casting foundries. The individual companies have large potentials for improving their energy efficiency. Energy efficiency measures within the electrolysis process have significant effects on primary energy use, GHG emissions, and energy and CO2 costs. This thesis showed that joint work between the companies in the supply chains of the aluminium industry is needed in order to achieve further energy efficiency improvements compared to the companies only working on their own. The joint work between the companies in the supply chain is needed to avoid sub-optimisation of the total energy use throughout the entire supply chain. Better communication and closer collaboration between all the companies in the supply chain are two of the most important aspects of the joint work to improve energy efficiency. An energy audit for the entire supply chain could be conducted as a first step in the joint work between the companies in the supply chains. Another important aspect is to increase the use of secondary aluminium or remelted material waste rather than primary aluminium.The companies in the Swedish aluminium industry and the aluminium casting foundries have come some way in their work to improve energy efficiency within their own facilities. However, the results in this thesis indicate that cost-effective technology and improved management can, in total, save 126–185 GWh/year in the Swedish aluminium industry and 8–15 GWh/year in the Swedish aluminium casting foundries.This thesis identified several demands regarding economics, product quality and performance, and environment placed on the companies and products in the supply chains that affect energy use and work to improve energy efficiency. These demands can sometimes counteract each other, and some demands are more important to meet than improving energy efficiency. This implies that improving the energy efficiency of the supply chains as well as designing products so they are energy-efficient in their use phase can sometimes be difficult. The results in this thesis indicate that it would be beneficial if the companies reviewed these demands to see whether any of them could be changed.Both the economic aspects and demands from customers and authorities were shown to be important drivers for improved energy efficiency in the supply chains. However, placing demands on energy-efficient production and a company’s improved energy efficiency would require those placing the demands to have deeper knowledge compared to demanding green energy, for example. Requiring a company to implement an energy management system to ensure active work to improve energy efficiency would be easier for the customer than demanding a certain level of energy efficiency in the company’s processes. Additionally, energy audits and demands on conducted energy audits could act as drivers for improved energy efficiency throughout the supply chains.This thesis showed that the most important barriers to improved energy efficiency within the individual companies include different types of risks as well as the cost of production disruption, complex production processes and technology being inappropriate at the site. Similar to the supply chains, important drivers for improved energy efficiency within the individual companies were shown to be economic aspects and demands from customers and authorities. However, the factors that are most important for driving the work to improve energy efficiency within the individual companies include the access to and utilisation of knowledge within the company, corporate culture, a longterm energy strategy, networking within the sector, information from technology suppliers and energy audits.
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