The development of novel foods from Swedish pulses : Raw material composition and processing effects
Abstract: A gradual shift towards a healthier and more sustainable diet with a higher quantity of plant-based products is suggested to be one of the most efficient ways to alleviate environmental pressure from the current food system. Pulses could play a crucial role in this shift due to the multi-faceted benefits they have on the environment and human health. This thesis aims to study the suitability of Swedish grown pulses as the raw material for new pulse-based foods and ingredients. Flour from locally grown pulses (yellow peas, grey peas, faba beans, and white beans) prepared using different treatments (boiling, roasting, and germination) were analysed for their functional properties, nutrient content, and volatile compound composition. Protein isolates from locally grown pulses were prepared at a pilot scale using an alkaline extraction method, followed by isoelectric precipitation and were then analysed for proximate composition, thermal properties, and water holding capacity. The suitability of pulse flour in the development of cheese analogues and pulse protein isolates to produce high-moisture meat analogues (HMMA) was examined. The results showed that the functional properties and nutrient content of flour from pulses were significantly affected by treatments prior to milling. Different treatments also affected the volatile compound profile of pulse flour to varying degrees. Plant-based cheese analogues with a firm and sliceable texture were successfully prepared using flour from boiled and roasted yellow peas and faba beans. The pulse-based cheese analogues could be categorised as functional foods owing to the high content of dietary fibre (7-8 g/100 g). Moreover, meat analogues can be produced using protein isolates from yellow peas and faba beans using high-moisture extrusion cooking. The target moisture content and extrusion temperature needed to be adjusted depending on the botanical origin of the protein isolate. Pulse-based cheese and meat analogues made from locally sourced materials could be utilised to increase the consumption of pulses in Sweden, which is currently very low.
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