Large Scale Solar Power Integration in Distribution Grids PV Modelling, Voltage Support and Aggregation Studies

University dissertation from Stockholm : KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Abstract: Long term supporting schemes for photovoltaic (PV) system installation have led to accommodating large numbers of PV systems within load pockets in distribution grids. High penetrations of PV systems can cause new technical challenges, such as voltage rise due to reverse power flow during light load and high PV generation conditions. Therefore, new strategies are required to address the associated challenges.Moreover, due to these changes in distribution grids, a different response behavior of the distribution grid on the transmission side can be expected. Hence, a new equivalent model of distribution grids with high penetration of PV systems is needed to be addressed for future power system studies.The thesis contributions lie in three parts. The first part of the thesis copes with the PV modelling. A non-proprietary PV model of a three-phase, single stage PV system is developed in PSCAD/EMTDC and PowerFactory. Threedifferent reactive power regulation strategies are incorporated into the models and their behavior are investigated in both simulation platforms using a distribution system with PV systems.In the second part of the thesis, the voltage rise problem is remedied by use of reactive power. On the other hand, considering large numbers of PV systems in grids, unnecessary reactive power consumption by PV systems first increases total line losses, and second it may also jeopardize the stability of the network in the case of contingencies in conventional power plants, which supply reactive power. Thus, this thesis investigates and develops the novel schemes to reduce reactive power flows while still keeping voltage within designated limits via three different approaches:decentralized voltage control to the pre-defined set-pointsdeveloping a coordinated active power dependent (APD) voltage regulation Q(P)using local signalsdeveloping a multi-objective coordinated droop-based voltage (DBV) regulation Q(V) using local signals In the third part of the thesis, furthermore, a gray-box load modeling is used to develop a new static equivalent model of a complex distribution grid with large numbers of PV systems embedded with voltage support schemes. In the proposed model, variations of voltage at the connection point simulate variations of the model’s active and reactive power. This model can simply be integrated intoload-flow programs and replace the complex distribution grid, while still keepingthe overall accuracy high.The thesis results, in conclusion, demonstrate: i) using rms-based simulations in PowerFactory can provide us with quite similar results using the time domain instantaneous values in PSCAD platform; ii) decentralized voltage control to specific set-points through the PV systems in the distribution grid is fundamentally impossible dueto the high level voltage control interaction and directionality among the PV systems; iii) the proposed APD method can regulate the voltage under the steady-state voltagelimit and consume less total reactive power in contrast to the standard characteristicCos?(P)proposed by German Grid Codes; iv) the proposed optimized DBV method can directly address voltage and successfully regulate it to the upper steady-state voltage limit by causing minimum reactive power consumption as well as line losses; v) it is beneficial to address PV systems as a separate entity in the equivalencing of distribution grids with high density of PV systems.