Experimental Diagnostics and Therapeutics of Invasive Urinary Bladder Cancer
Abstract: The two purposes of this thesis were to evaluate new diagnostic techniques of lymphnode staging in invasive bladder cancer and to evaluate the results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in invasive bladder cancer.Sentinel node detection was performed in 13 patients in preparation for radical cystectomy. The method showed to be feasible, and the results displayed the occurrence of metastatic nodes outside the traditional area of diagnostic dissection in a majority of patients. Four patients were metastasized, each one with one metastatic node detected with the help of the sentinel node procedure.Four randomly selected sentinel nodes from four different unmetastasized patients were compared to the four metastatic sentinel nodes from the first series. After microdissection, p53 genomic structure, immunohistochemical expression and MVD (microvessel density) were assessed in the primary tumors and corresponding sentinel nodes. The results suggested that invasive bladder cancer mainly involved monoclonal proliferation with predominantly homogenous biomarker profile, but there were also signs of clonal evolution.The Nordic Cystectomy Trial 2 (NCT2), is a randomized prospective trial investigating the possible benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus cystectomy only, in 311 eligible patients with urinary bladder cancer T2-T4aNXM0.Evaluation of overall survival did not show any statistically significant benefit in the experimental arm. This probably due to lack of statistical power.To increase the statistical power we performed a combined analysis of randomized patients from both the Nordic Cystectomy Trial 1 (NCT1) and NCT2, n = 620. Eligible patients from NCT1 had T1G3, T2-T4a NXM0 urinary bladder cancer. Standard meta-analysis methods were used. The only end-point analysed was overall survival. Neoadjuvant platinum based combination therapy was associated with a 20 % reduction in the relative hazard in probability of death.
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